Предлоги в типичных словосочетаниях
The lists below contain examples of use of those prepositions which often present some difficulty for language learners because of similar meanings. Only the most frequently used prepositions of place and direction and prepositions of time in their most common meanings have been included in the lists.
Prepositions usually have several meanings. Some adverbs (postpositions) and prepositions have the same form. For example: A year went by. – She went by the post office. He went by bus. Differences between postpositions and prepositions are described in Phrasal Verbs Introduction in the section Idioms.
Списки ниже содержат примеры употребления тех предлогов, которые часто представляют трудность для изучающих язык из-за похожих значений. Только наиболее часто употребляемые предлоги места и направления и предлоги времени в их наиболее употребительных значениях включены в списки.
Предлоги обычно имеют несколько значений. Некоторые наречия (послелоги) и предлоги имеют одинаковую форму. Например: Прошел год. – Она прошла мимо почты. Он поехал автобусом. Различия между послелогами и предлогами описаны в статье Phrasal Verbs Introduction в разделе Idioms.
AT (в каком-то месте): He is at the airport; at the train station; at the bank; at the office; at work; at home; at school; at the university; at the tennis club. She is at the doctor's; at the dentist's; at her sister's.
AT (в каком-то месте): She works at a bank; at a library; at a hospital; at a newspaper; at a plant; at IBM. We ate at a restaurant; at McDonald's. She stayed at a small hotel. He studied economics at a business school; at a technical school.
AT (у, около какого-то места): Turn left at the traffic lights; at the bank; at the school; at the church. He is standing at the bus stop; at the corner of the street; at the door; at the window. She is sitting at her desk; at the table.
AT (на каком-то уровне или расстоянии): It is at the top of the page; at the top of the list; at the bottom of the page; at the end of the list; at the beginning of the book; at the end of the chapter; at the end of the street; at the top of the mountain; at the bottom of the sea; at sea level; at a height of 25 meters; at a distance of 200 meters. She lives at 15 Green Street.
AT (на каком-то мероприятии): They are at a concert; at a party; at a meeting; at a conference; at a football game; at the movies; at the cinema; at the theater; at the opera; at dinner; at lunch.
IN – в каком-то месте, внутри, в пределах какого-то ограниченного пространства.
IN: The key is in this box; in your bag; in my pocket; in her hand; in the desk drawer; in the living room; in the corner of the room; in the kitchen; in the hall; in the closet; in the car. There are four rooms in his house. There is no elevator in this building. It was very cold in her apartment; in the office; in the theater.
IN: He is sitting in an armchair; in a rocking chair; in a wheelchair. They walked in the park; played in the garden. We saw flowers in the field; clouds in the sky; balloons in the air; birds in the trees; animals in the woods; fish in the river.
IN: He is in the army; in bed; in class; in prison / in jail. AmE: to be in the hospital (лежать в больнице; быть/находиться в больнице). BrE: to be in hospital (лежать в больнице).
IN: She lives in a large house; in a small apartment; in a large city; in the center of the city; in a small town; in the country; in a village; in Paris; in London; in England; in the United States; in the North; in the South. What is the largest country in the world?
IN: I read it in a book; in a dictionary; in a newspaper. I saw it in a film; in a movie; in a dream. I know the man in this photograph. I like the landscape in this picture. She looked at herself in the mirror.
IN: The house is in the center of the picture, with the forest in the background and the mountains in the distance. He is sitting in the sixth row. Please stand in line.
IN: There is a hole in your coat; a pain in my foot. There were tears in her eyes; strange thoughts in his head.
ON – на поверхности чего-то; на чем-то.
ON: The book is on the table; on the shelf; on the windowsill; on the floor. The picture is on the wall. Read the text on page 5. She is sitting on the sofa; on the bed; on a chair; on a bench; on a stool. He walked on crutches for a month.
ON: There is a smile on his face; a hat on his head; black shoes on his feet; a shawl on her shoulders; a stain on your coat; ice on the water; snow on the roof. Fruit grows on trees. Money doesn't grow on trees.
ON: We spent our vacation on a small island in the Caribbean Sea. London is on the Thames River. Our house is on the left; on the right; on the corner of the street. Her apartment is on the third floor. She lives on Green Street.
ON: They are on the train to Bern; on the plane to Rome. Who is that boy on a bicycle? She got on the bus on Oak Street.
ON: I saw it on TV. I heard it on the radio. I spoke to her on the telephone. I found it on the Internet.
Note: at, in, on
AT/IN: She works at a bank / in a bank. He works at a library / in a library. I ate at a restaurant / in a restaurant.
AT/ON: The museum is at the corner of Main Street and Pine Lane / on the corner of Main Street and Pine Lane. She will wait for us at the corner / on the corner (of the street).
IN/ON: There are a lot of people in the streets / on the streets. AmE: She lives on Main Street. BrE: She lives in Main Street. But: She lives at 26 Main Street.
Note: arrive in, arrive at
He arrived in London two days ago. He arrived at the airport at one o'clock.
(See Verbs with Prepositions and Nouns Short List in the section Idioms.)
INSIDE (внутри): What is inside this box? Are there any people inside the house? Stand inside the circle, please.
OUTSIDE (снаружи): He left his dog outside the house. There was some sound outside the door.
BY (около, возле, у): She is standing by the window; by the door; by the car; by the table. She sat by his bed. Let's take a walk by the river.
BY (мимо, но близко к): They went by the post office; by the bank; by the church. He went by me without saying hello.
BESIDE (возле, около, рядом с): Stay beside me. She sat beside his bed. He waited beside the door. Put the napkin beside the plate.
NEAR (около, близко к, но немного дальше, чем by, beside): He sat near the door; near the window; near the stage. Their house is near the lake; near the river; near a nice park; near the subway station; near the school.
NEXT TO (рядом с, по соседству с, следующий в ряду): The post office is next to the bank; next to the drugstore; next to the gas station. Their house is next to our house. She sat next to me on the bus; in the theater; in class.
AGAINST (у, прислоняясь к; обо что-то): The table stands against the wall. He placed the ladder against the wall. She leaned against the wall; against the back of her chair. The rain is beating against the window. He threw the ball against the wall.
AGAINST (на фоне чего-то): The red looks darker against the black.
BELOW (под, ниже по уровню): below the horizon; below sea level; below zero; below average; below the norm; below the surface; the rooms below us; the text below. Antonym: above.
UNDER (под, прямо под, под поверхностью, под покрытием): under the table; under the chair; under the roof; under the sky; under the floor; under the carpet; under the bed; under the pillow; under the blanket; under the bridge; under a tree; under water; under the surface; under the skin; dark circles under her eyes; the ground under his feet. Antonym: over.
ABOVE (над, выше по уровню): above the horizon; above sea level; above zero; above average; the picture above the piano; the rooms above us; the text above; the sky above. Antonym: below.
OVER (над, прямо над, над поверхностью): the roof over your head; the sky over the city; the clouds over the mountains. Her apartment is directly over mine. The plane flew over our house; over the city; over the fields; over the lake; over the ocean. He jumped over the fence; over the stone. Antonym: under.
IN FRONT OF (перед, впереди): The garden is in front of the house. The bus stop is in front of the building. His car is in front of the garage. He stood in line in front of me.
BEHIND (позади, за): The garden is behind the house. The bus stop is behind that building. The boy hid behind a tree. Stand behind the line, please. He stood behind me.
OPPOSITE (напротив): The bank is opposite the post office. My hotel room is opposite yours. He sat opposite me.
TO (к, в, по направлению к): the road to Boston; the flight to London; my trip to Italy; the way to his house; the village is to the north of the city. She went to the store; to the bank; to a restaurant; to the library; to the cinema; to the theater; to the party; to the kitchen; to the door; to the doctor; to the park; to the lake; to the sea; to the mountains. Go to page 5.
TOWARD (по направлению к, в направлении к): He went toward that building; toward the park; toward the river; toward the station; toward the center of town; toward the door; toward the elevators. They walked toward the library. She turned toward him.
INTO (в, вовнутрь, во что-то): Come into the room; into the house. Get into the car. He poured some tea into her cup. He got into trouble; into difficulties. Her teddy bear fell into the water. This river flows into a large lake. He went into accounting; into banking. Translate this passage into English; from English into Russian. Snow turned into rain.
OUT OF (наружу из): to go out of the room; to go out of the building; to run out of the door; to look out of the window; to take a handkerchief out of the pocket; to get out of the car; to get out of the cage.
Note: AmE, usually TOWARD. BrE, usually TOWARDS: He went towards the library. She turned towards him.
THROUGH (сквозь, через): the road through the village; a path through the forest. He went through the park; through the tunnel; through the building. He walked through the door; through the gate. She looked through the hole; through the glass; through the window.
ACROSS (через, поперек; на другой стороне): There is a bridge across the river. He went across the street; across the park; across the bridge. Several fallen trees were lying across the road. The bookstore is across the street. Do you see that yellow building across the street?
AROUND (вокруг, кругом): There is a fence around his house. There is a large park around the museum. Go around this house. They sat around the table. He traveled around the world. We took a walk around town. The earth revolves around the sun. She walked around the corner. The bus stop is around the corner.
PAST (мимо): She walked past him. Go past the post office. He went past the bank. Bus 10 goes past the school.
ALONG (вдоль): the book shelves along the wall; the trees along the road; to walk along the road; to walk along the street; to walk along the river; to sail along the coast;
Note: AmE, usually AROUND. BrE, usually ROUND, also AROUND: There is a fence round his house. She walked round the corner.
DOWN (вниз по; вдоль по; по ходу, по течению): to go down the stairs; to go down the hill; to go down the ladder. Go down this street and turn left. They sailed down the river on a raft.
UP (вверх по; в обратном направлении, против течения): to go up the stairs; to go up the hill; to climb up the ladder. Go up this street and turn left. The ship sailed up the river.
BETWEEN (между двумя): The bank is between the post office and the bookstore. The sofa is between the table and the bookcase. Tom is sitting between Lisa and Ella. There is no train between Redford and Bedford.
AMONG (среди нескольких): Your book is probably among the other books on the table. She is among her friends now. Is there a doctor among the guests? They shared the money equally among the members of the family.
AT (в определенное, указанное время): My train leaves at three o'clock; at 9:00 a.m.; at 10:00 p.m. I called him at seven in the morning; at nine in the evening; at ten; at about five; at noon; at midnight. They are going away at the beginning of October; at the end of March. He started to work at 15 / at the age of 15.
AT (в основном, устойчивые выражения: в указанный момент или период времени): at present, at the present time; at the moment, at this moment; at the same time; at Christmas / at Christmas time; at noon; at night; at dawn; at sunset; at first; at last; at the latest.
IN (внутри, в пределах какого-то периода времени): I went there in the morning; in the afternoon; in the evening; in winter; in spring; in summer; in autumn; in the fall; in the middle of June. The action takes place in the future; in the present; in the past.
IN (в будущем: через какой-то период времени; в прошлом: за какой-то период времени; в течение какого-то периода времени): He will come back in a minute; in ten minutes; in an hour; in half an hour; in a day or two; in five days; in a week; in a month; in a year; in three years. He finished his work in three hours. He hasn't been there in two years.
IN (в таком-то месяце, году, веке): I was there in May; in November; in 1985; in 1991; in 2007; in 2010; Such hats were popular in the '60s; in the 1950s; in the twenties; in the 19th century.
ON (в такой-то день): I will do it on Monday; on Wednesday; on Sunday; on Christmas Day; on Labor Day. She was busy on Friday morning; on Saturday night; on Thursday evening. He works on Tuesdays; on weekdays; on weekends.
ON (указание даты; такого-то числа/дня): He left on May third; on June 1st; on January seventh; on the 10th of August; on the sixth of November. She was born on December 3, 1985 (Read: on December third / on the third of December, nineteen eighty-five.)
FOR (в течение какого-то периода времени): She talked to him for five minutes; for half an hour; for an hour. He has been waiting for three hours; for two days; for a week; for six months; for a year; for years; for a long time; for ages. I haven't seen him for a long time.
SINCE (с какого-то времени до наст.вр.): I have been waiting here since noon, since morning, since two o'clock. He has been sick since yesterday; since Monday. She has known him since childhood; since 1998; since 2005; since last year. I haven't seen him since Monday.
Note: for, in
FOR (в течение какого-то периода времени): He worked there for many years. I've known her for years. She stayed there for a long time. I haven't seen him for a long time. I haven't seen him for ages. I haven't talked to him for a month. He hasn't been there for two years.
IN (часто в отрицательных предложениях: в течение какого-то периода времени): I haven't seen him in years. I haven't seen him in a long time. I haven't talked to him in a month. He hasn't been there in two years. For the first time in years he thought about his childhood friends.
FROM ... TO (с ... до): Banks work from 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. This bank is open from nine to five. He works from nine to six; from Monday to Friday. She was busy from two to four. He lived in Boston from 1980 to 1985. They live in their summer house from May to October. He was in college from 2003 to 2007.
FROM ... TILL, FROM ... UNTIL (с...до, вплоть до): Banks work from 10:00 a.m. till/until 5:00 p.m. This bank is open from nine till five. He works from nine till six; from nine until six; from morning till night; from ten in the morning till seven at night. He lived in Boston from 1980 until 1985. They live in their summer house from May till October.
FROM ... THROUGH (AmE) (с...по; подчеркивает, что включительно): He works from Monday through Saturday. He works Monday through Friday. He lived in Chicago from 1986 through 1995. They live in their summer house from May through October.
WHILE (во время процесса действия): It happened while we were watching TV; while she was listening to music; while he was sleeping; while they were eating lunch; while she was on vacation. The telephone rang while I was making breakfast.
DURING (во время чего-то): It happened during the lesson; during the flight; during the concert; during lunch; during her vacation; during her trip to London. He worked during the day; during the night; during the week; during the weekend.
BEFORE (до, перед, раньше чего-то): He called me before eleven o'clock; before dinner; before the concert; before his exam; before my trip; before he went home.
AFTER (после): She called him after six o'clock; after dinner; after the concert; after his exam; after work; after she finished her work.
BY (до, не позднее): We have to be there by nine o'clock. They should receive our report by Tuesday. She submitted her application by the first of June. He promises to finish his new novel by the end of the year.
TILL (до, вплоть до): Banks work till 5:00. The post office is open till seven o'clock. He slept till ten. He lived in Chicago till 2005. They will stay there till Friday. Please wait till tomorrow.
UNTIL (до, вплоть до): Banks work until 5:00. He slept until ten. He lived in Chicago until 2005. They will stay there until Friday. Wait until tomorrow. They worked in the yard until it grew dark.
TILL, UNTIL (в отрицательных предложениях: не ранее чем, только в): Banks do not open until 10:00 a.m. He will not get up until ten. He did not visit New York until 2010. She did not visit him till today. The repairmen did not leave until they fixed everything.
BY (действие выполняется кем-то, чем-то): The lock was repaired by a locksmith. This novel was written by Theodore Dreiser. His brother was killed by a robber. The dog was hit by a car. The village was destroyed by the hurricane. Their houses were destroyed by fire.
WITH (с помощью чего-то, чем-то): He opened the door with a key. The teacher made corrections with a red pencil. Cut it with a knife and eat it with a fork, not with a spoon. She saw it with her own eyes. He made this table with his own hands.
BY (каким-то транспортом): She came here by bus. We went there by taxi; by car; by bus; by train; by plane. He likes to travel by car. He usually travels by train.
IN (в автомобиле): She came here in a car. She went there in a taxi.
ON (на транспорте): She likes to travel on a train. She does not feel safe on a plane. She does not like to travel on a bus. We went there on foot.
Note: Many prepositions are described in the answers to visitors' questions in the subsection Messages about Grammar (Prepositions) in the section Messages.
Примечание: Многие предлоги описаны в ответах на вопросы посетителей в подразделе Messages about Grammar (Prepositions) в разделе Messages.