Names of Constellations, Stars and Planets

This material is intended as pronunciation help for learners of English. The material contains lists of proper names of constellations, bright stars and planets, with phonetic transcription and Russian translation. Examples in sentences and lists of some related words are provided at the end of this material.

Learners of English can use the parts "Examples in sentences" as more or less simple reading material on the topic. The lists and examples are based on information in dictionaries and reference books. (You can find fuller lists of stars in Wikipedia.)

Данный материал предназначен как помощь по произношению для изучающих английский язык. Материал содержит списки названий созвездий, ярких звёзд и планет, с фонетической транскрипцией и русским переводом. Примеры в предложениях и списки некоторых других слов по теме даны в конце этого материала.

Изучающие английский язык могут использовать части "Examples in sentences" как более или менее простой материал для чтения по данной теме. Списки и примеры основаны на информации в словарях и справочниках. (Более полные списки звёзд можно найти в Wikipedia.)

Transcription symbols in this material

[p], [b], [t], [d], [k], [g], [f], [v], [θ], [ð], [s], [z], [sh], [h], [ch], [j], [m], [n], [ŋ], [l], [r], [w];

[i:], [i], [e], [æ], [a:], [o:], [o], [u:], [yu:], [u], [ʌ], [ə], [ər]; [ei], [ai], [au], [ou];

[θ] as in THINK; [ð] as in THIS; [sh] – SHE; [ch] – RICH; [j] – JANE; [ŋ] – LONG;

[a:] as in CAR; [æ] as in CAT; [i:] – SEE; [i] – ILL; [e] – GET; [o:] – MORE; [o] – LOT;

[u:] as in BLUE; [yu:] as in USE; [u] – BOOK; [ʌ] – CUT; [ə] – AWAY; [ər] – SIR;

[ei] as in DAY; [ai] as in MINE; [au] – OUT; [ou] – GO; [y] as in YES.

Transcription is indicated according to American pronunciation. Stress is indicated before stressed syllables. Example of secondary and primary stress before stressed syllables: [,konstə'leishən] (constellation).

Транскрипция указана согласно американскому произношению. Ударение указано перед ударными слогами. Пример второстепенного и главного ударения перед ударными слогами: [,konstə'leishən] (constellation).

Names of constellations

В английском языке, большинство созвездий имеют официальное латинское название и английское эквивалентное название, объясняющее значение латинского названия. Например: Leo (Latin) – the Lion (English). Иногда оба названия употребляются вместе: Leo, the Lion; Aries, the Ram; Orion, the Hunter.

В списке ниже даны: официальное латинское название созвездия; английский эквивалент; русское название созвездия.

Name of constellation – English equivalent – Russian name

Andromeda [æn'dromidə] – Андромеда;

Antlia ['æntliə] – the Air Pump – Насос;

Apus ['eipəs] – the Bird of Paradise – Райская Птица;

Aquarius [ə'kweəriəs] – the Water Bearer – Водолей;

Aquila ['ækwələ], ['ækwilə] – the Eagle – Орёл;

Ara ['eirə], ['eərə] – the Altar – Жертвенник;

Aries ['eəri:z], ['eərii:z] – the Ram – Овен;

Auriga [o:'raigə] – the Charioteer – Возничий;

Bootes [bou'outi:z] – the Herdsman – Волопас;

Caelum ['si:ləm] – the Sculptor's Tool – Резец;

Camelopardalis [kə,melə'pa:rdəlis], [,kæməlou'pa:rdəlis] – the Giraffe – Жираф;

Cancer ['kænsər] – the Crab – Рак;

Canes Venatici ['keini:z vi'nætisai] – the Hunting Dogs – Гончие Псы;

Canis Major ['keinis 'meijər] – the Great Dog – Большой Пёс;

Canis Minor ['keinis 'mainər] – the Little Dog; the Lesser Dog – Малый Пёс;

Capricorn ['kæpri,ko:rn], also Capricornus [,kæpri'ko:rnəs] – the Goat – Козерог;

Carina [kə'rainə] – the Keel – Киль;

Cassiopeia [,kæsiə'pi:ə] – Кассиопея;

Centaurus [sen'to:rəs] – the Centaur ['sento:r] – Центавр, Кентавр;

Cepheus ['si:fiəs], ['si:fyu:s] – Цефей;

Cetus ['si:təs] – the Whale – Кит;

Chamaeleon [kə'mi:liən], [kə'mi:lyən] – the Chameleon – Хамелеон;

Name of constellation – English equivalent – Russian name

Circinus ['sərsinəs] – the Compasses – Циркуль;

Columba [kə'lʌmbə] – the Dove – Голубь;

Coma Berenices ['koumə ,berə'naisi:z] – Berenice's Hair – Волосы Вероники;

Corona Australis [kə'rounə o:'streilis] – the Southern Crown – Южная Корона;

Corona Borealis [kə'rounə ,bo:ri'ælis]] – the Northern Crown – Северная Корона;

Corvus ['ko:rvəs] – the Crow – Ворон;

Crater ['kreitər] – the Cup – Чаша;

Crux [krʌks] – the Southern Cross; the Cross – Южный Крест;

Cygnus ['signəs] – the Swan – Лебедь;

Delphinus [del'fainəs] – the Dolphin – Дельфин;

Dorado [də'ra:dou] – the Swordfish – Золотая Рыба;

Draco ['dreikou] – the Dragon – Дракон;

Equuleus [i'kwu:liəs] – the Little Horse – Малый Конь;

Eridanus [i'ridənəs] – the River – Эридан;

Fornax ['fo:rnæks] – the Furnace – Печь;

Gemini ['jeminai], ['jemənai], ['jemini:] – the Twins – Близнецы;

Grus [grʌs], [gru:s] – the Crane – Журавль;

Hercules ['hərkyuli:z], ['hərkyəli:z] – Геркулес;

Horologium [,ho:rə'loujiəm] – the Clock – Часы;

Hydra ['haidrə] – the Sea Serpent – Гидра;

Hydrus ['haidrəs] – the Water Snake – Южный Змей;

Indus ['indəs] – the Indian – Индеец;

Name of constellation – English equivalent – Russian name

Lacerta [lə'sərtə] – the Lizard – Ящерица;

Leo ['li:ou] – the Lion – Лев;

Leo Minor ['li:ou 'mainər] – the Little Lion – Малый Лев;

Lepus ['lepəs], ['li:pəs] – the Hare – Заяц;

Libra ['laibrə], ['li:brə] – the Balance; the Scales – Весы;

Lupus ['lu:pəs] – the Wolf – Волк;

Lynx [liŋks] – Рысь;

Lyra ['lairə] – the Lyre ['laiər] – Лира;

Mensa ['mensə] – the Table – Столовая Гора;

Microscopium [,maikrə'skoupiəm] – the Microscope – Микроскоп;

Monoceros [mə'nosərəs] – the Unicorn – Единорог;

Musca ['mʌskə] – the Fly – Муха;

Norma ['no:rmə] – the Rule – Наугольник;

Octans ['oktænz] – the Octant ['oktənt] – Октант;

Ophiuchus [,ofi:'yu:kəs], [,oufi:'yu:kəs] – the Serpent Bearer – Змееносец;

Orion [ou'raiən], [o:'raiən] – the Hunter – Орион;

Pavo ['peivou] – the Peacock – Павлин;

Pegasus ['pegəsəs] – the Winged Horse – Пегас;

Perseus ['pərsiəs], ['pərsu:s], ['pərsyu:s] – Персей;

Phoenix ['fi:niks] – Феникс;

Pictor ['piktər] – the Painter – Живописец;

Pisces ['paisi:z], ['pisi:z] – the Fishes – Рыбы;

Piscis Austrinus ['paisis o:'strainəs] – the Southern Fish – Южная Рыба;

Name of constellation – English equivalent – Russian name

Puppis ['pʌpis] – the Stern – Корма;

Pyxis ['piksis] – the Compass – Компас;

Reticulum [ri'tikyuləm], [ri'tikyələm] – the Net – Сетка;

Sagitta [sə'jitə] – the Arrow – Стрелка;

Sagittarius [,sæji'teəriəs] – the Archer – Стрелец;

Scorpius ['sko:rpiəs], also Scorpio ['sko:rpiou] – the Scorpion – Скорпион;

Sculptor ['skʌlptər] – Скульптор;

Scutum ['skyu:təm] – the Shield – Щит;

Serpens ['sərpənz], ['sərpenz] – the Serpent – Змея;

Sextans ['sekstənz] – the Sextant – Секстант;

Taurus ['to:rəs] – the Bull – Телец;

Telescopium [,teli'skoupiəm] – the Telescope – Телескоп;

Triangulum [trai'æŋgyuləm], [trai'æŋgyələm] – the Triangle – Треугольник;

Triangulum Australe [trai'æŋgyuləm o:'streili:] – the Southern Triangle – Южный Треугольник;

Tucana [tu:'kænə], [tu:'ka:nə], [tyu:'keinə] – the Toucan ['tu:kæn], [tu:'ka:n] – Тукан;

Ursa Major ['ərsə 'meijər] – the Great Bear – Большая Медведица;

Ursa Minor ['ərsə 'mainər] – the Little Bear; the Lesser Bear – Малая Медведица;

Vela ['vi:lə] – the Sail – Паруса;

Virgo ['vərgou] – the Virgin – Дева;

Volans ['voulænz] – the Flying Fish – Летучая Рыба;

Vulpecula [vʌl'pekyulə], [vʌl'pekyələ] – the Little Fox – Лисичка.

Signs of the zodiac:

Aries (the Ram); Taurus (the Bull); Gemini (the Twins); Cancer (the Crab); Leo (the Lion);

Virgo (the Virgin); Libra (the Scales); Scorpio (the Scorpion); Sagittarius (the Archer);

Capricorn (the Goat); Aquarius (the Water Bearer); Pisces (the Fishes).

Names of brightest stars

Name of star (In what constellation) – Russian name of star

Achernar ['eikər,na:r] (in Eridanus) – Ахернар;

Acrux ['eikrʌks] (in Crux, the Southern Cross) – Акрукс;

Aldebaran [æl'debərən] (in Taurus) – Альдебаран;

Alpha Centauri ['ælfə sen'to:rai], also called Rigil Kentaurus (in Centaurus) – Альфа Центавра;

Altair [æl'ta:ir] (in Aquila) – Альтаир;

Antares [æn'teəri:z] (in Scorpius) – Антарес;

Arcturus [a:rk'turəs], [a:rk'tyurəs] (in Bootes) – Арктур;

Betelgeuse ['bi:təl,ju:z] (in Orion) – Бетельгейзе;

Canopus [kə'noupəs] (in Carina) – Канопус;

Capella [kə'pelə] (in Auriga) – Капелла;

Castor ['kæstər], ['ka:stər] (in Gemini) – Кастор;

Deneb ['deneb], ['denib] (in Cygnus) – Денеб;

Fomalhaut ['fouməl,ho:t] (in Piscis Austrinus) – Фомальгаут;

Pollux ['poləks] (in Gemini) – Поллукс;

Procyon ['prousi,on] (in Canis Minor) – Процион;

Regulus ['regyuləs], ['regyələs] (in Leo) – Регул;

Rigel ['raijəl], ['raigəl] (in Orion) – Ригель;

Sirius ['siriəs] (in Canis Major) – Сириус;

Spica ['spaikə] (in Virgo) – Спика;

Vega ['vi:gə] (in Lyra) – Вега.

Genitive case of names of constellations

(Родительный падеж названий созвездий)

Сравните эти примеры:

Betelgeuse, the brightest star in the constellation Orion, is one of the largest stars known.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) is one of the largest stars known.

"Orionis" is the genitive case of "Orion". ("Orionis" – родительный падеж названия "Orion".)

Nominative case: Orion [ou'raiən], [o:'raiən] – Genitive case: Orionis [,o:ri'ounis], [ou'raiənis].

Примеры: Nominative case – Genitive case

Centaurus [sen'to:rəs] – Centauri [sen'to:rai] (e.g., Alpha Centauri);

Taurus ['to:rəs] – Tauri ['to:rai] (e.g., Beta Tauri);

Aries ['eəri:z], ['eərii:z] – Arietis [ə'raiitis] (e.g., Alpha Arietis);

Leo ['li:ou] – Leonis [li:'ounis] (e.g., Alpha Leonis);

Cancer ['kænsər] – Cancri ['kæŋkri:] (e.g., Delta Cancri);

Crux [krʌks] – Crucis ['kru:sis] (e.g., Alpha Crucis);

Gemini ['jeminai] – Geminorum [,jemi'no:rəm] (e.g., Beta Geminorum);

Andromeda [æn'dromidə] – Andromedae [æn'dromidi:] (e.g., Gamma Andromedae);

Libra ['laibrə], ['li:brə] – Librae ['laibri:], ['li:bri:] (e.g., Delta Librae).

Пояснение: Alpha Librae, Beta Geminorum и т.п.

Греческие буквы "alpha, beta, gamma" и т.д. с последующим латинским названием созвездия в латинском родительном падеже используются в научной литературе для указания ярких звёзд и названия созвездия, в котором они находятся. (Официальные названия созвездий – латинские.)

Значение и произношение букв: alpha ['ælfə] – самая яркая звезда указанного созвездия; beta ['beitə], ['bi:tə] – вторая по яркости; gamma ['gæmə] – третья по яркости; delta ['deltə] – четвёртая по яркости и т.д.

Например: Alpha Librae; Beta Librae; Delta Librae; Alpha Crucis; Beta Geminorum; Beta Persei; Gamma Andromedae; Gamma Orionis; Delta Arietis.

(Альфа Весов; Бета Весов; Дельта Весов; Альфа Южного Креста; Бета Близнецов; Бета Персея; Гамма Андромеды; Гамма Ориона; Дельта Овна)

Как видно из примеров выше, произношение и написание латинских названий созвездий в родительном падеже могут значительно отличаться от их произношения и написания в именительном падеже.

В своей речи, изучающие английский язык могут в качестве замены употребить обычные выражения типа "the brightest star in the constellation Libra; the fourth brightest star in the constellation Libra; the brightest star in the constellation Crux; the second-brightest star in the constellation Gemini; Bellatrix, the third-brightest star in the constellation of Orion".

(См. примеры в частях "Examples in sentences" ниже, а также часть "Numerals in comparisons" в материале Degrees of Comparison в разделе Miscellany.)

Примечание: Названия созвездий имеют официальные сокращения, обычно состоящие из первых трёх букв названия в родительном падеже (с некоторыми особенностями). Например: Aur (Aurigae); CMi (Canis Minoris); Cnc (Cancri); Lib (Librae); Ori (Orionis); Sco (Scorpii); Tau (Tauri); UMa (Ursae Majoris).

Такие сокращения встречаются в научной литературе, например, в таблицах, схемах, кратких описаниях звёзд. При чтении вслух сокращения следует читать как полные слова.

Miscellaneous related names

the Milky Way; the Galaxy [ðə 'milki 'wei]; [ðə 'gæləksi] – Млечный Путь; (наша) Галактика;

Magellanic Clouds [,mæjə'lænik 'klaudz] (the Large Magellanic Cloud, the Small Magellanic Cloud) – Магеллановы Облака (соседние галактики);

the Andromeda Galaxy; the Andromeda Nebula – туманность Андромеды (галактика);

the Coalsack ['koul,sæk] (in Crux) – туманность Угольный мешок;

the Crab Nebula (in Taurus) – Крабовидная туманность;

the Cygnus Loop (in Cygnus) – туманность Петля в созвездии Лебедь;

the Horsehead Nebula (in Orion) – туманность Конская голова;

the Orion Nebula (in Orion) – туманность Ориона;

the Trifid Nebula ['traifid 'nebyulə, 'nebyələ] (in Sagittarius) – Трёхраздельная туманность;

the Hyades ['haiədi:z] (in Taurus) – Гиады (звёздное скопление);

the Pleiades ['pli:ədi:z], ['plaiədi:z] (in Taurus) – Плеяды (звёздное скопление);

Halley's Comet ['hæliz 'komit] – комета Галлея;

Ceres ['si:ri:z] – Церера (крупный астероид);

Leonids ['li:ənidz], also Leonides [li:'onidi:z] – Леониды (метеорный поток);

Perseids ['pərsi:idz] – Персеиды (метеорный поток).

The solar system

the Sun; the Earth; the Moon; the sun; the moon; the Earth, Earth, the earth;

Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto;

Mercury ['mərkyuri], ['mərkyəri] – Меркурий; Venus ['vi:nəs] – Венера;

Earth [ərθ] – Земля; Moon [mu:n] – Луна;

Mars [ma:rz] – Марс; Jupiter ['ju:pitər] – Юпитер;

Saturn ['sætərn] – Сатурн; Uranus ['yurənəs], [yu'reinəs] – Уран;

Neptune ['neptu:n], ['neptyu:n] – Нептун; Pluto ['plu:tou] – Плутон.

Примечание: В научной литературе, слова "sun, earth, moon" как названия конкретных астрономических объектов нашей солнечной системы обычно пишутся с большой буквы и употребляются с определённым артиклем (the Sun; the Earth; the Moon). Но также встречаются "sun, moon" с маленькой буквы, а "Earth" – без определённого артикля.

Употребление определённого артикля в похожих ситуациях описывается в материале Specific Use of THE в разделе Grammar. Также посмотрите ответ на вопрос об артикле перед словом Earth (сообщение от Irine, 8.08.15) в подразделе Messages about Grammar (Articles) в разделе Messages.

Note adjectives:

solar ['soulər] (солнечный); lunar ['lunər] (лунный);

terrestrial (земной); Earth-like, Earthlike (похожий на Землю);

Mercurial [mər'kyuriəl]; Venusian [və'nu:siən], [vi'nyu:siən], [və'nu:shiən], [və'nu:shən];

Martian ['ma:rshən]; Jovian ['jouviən] (относящийся к Юпитеру);

Saturnian [sə'tərniən]; Uranian [yu'reiniən]; Neptunian [nep'tu:niən], [nep'tyu:niən];

Plutonian [plu:'touniən], Plutonic [plu:'tonik].

The solar system: Examples in sentences

The solar system consists of the Sun and the objects (planets, moons, asteroids, comets) that revolve around it. There are nine planets in the solar system.

Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are called the inner planets; they are closest to the sun. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto are called the outer planets; they are more distant from the sun.

All the planets except Mercury and Venus have one or more natural satellites. There are more than fifty natural satellites in orbit around the planets in the solar system.

Five planets in our solar system are visible to the naked eye. They are Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Only the visible planets were known to ancient astronomers.

Venus is the most brilliant planet in the solar system and the brightest object in the sky (excluding the sun and the moon). Venus is several times as bright as Sirius, the brightest star in the sky.

The Earth is the third planet from the Sun. The Earth makes one rotation on its axis in 24 hours and one revolution around the Sun in one year. The Earth is the only planet known to sustain life.

The Moon is the Earth's natural satellite orbiting the Earth at a mean distance of 384,400 kilometers, or 238,900 miles. The diameter of the Earth is about four times the diameter of the Moon. The Moon has no atmosphere.

Mars, the fourth planet from the Sun, is often called the red planet. Martian rocks, plains, sands and dust have reddish color due to high content of iron oxide. The planet was named after Mars, the Roman god of war (the Greek god Ares).

The planet Jupiter is the largest of the planets. Its mass is more than 300 times the mass of the Earth. Jupiter's period of revolution around the Sun is about 12 years. Jupiter has 16 satellites, the largest of which are Ganymede, Callisto, Europa, and Io.

The rings of Saturn are composed of millions of small particles that revolve around Saturn like small moons. The inner parts of the rings revolve around Saturn faster than the outer parts.

Uranus, the seventh planet in order from the Sun, makes one revolution around the Sun in 84 years. Neptune takes about 165 years to make one revolution around the Sun.

Mercury, the nearest planet to the Sun, and Pluto, the outermost planet, are the smallest planets in the solar system.

The Milky Way is the galaxy to which our solar system belongs.

Constellations: Examples in sentences

The sky is divided into 88 sections containing traditional constellations. Constellations are named after some figures that they resemble in outline – characters from Greek mythology (e.g., Andromeda, Hercules, Orion), animals (Leo, Lupus, Taurus), things (Libra, Lyra, Triangulum).

Most constellations have a Latin name and an English equivalent name explaining its meaning. For example: Aquarius (Latin) – the Water Bearer (English); Leo (Latin) – the Lion (English). Sometimes both names are used together. For example: Orion, the Hunter; Taurus, the Bull. Official names of constellations are their Latin names.

Astronomers use Greek letters "alpha, beta, gamma", etc., followed by the genitive case of the Latin name of a constellation to indicate the brightest stars together with the constellation they are in. Thus, Antares, the brightest star in the constellation Scorpius, is called Alpha Scorpii; the second brightest star in the constellation Libra is called Beta Librae.

Ursa Major is the most prominent of the northern constellations. Ancient Greeks called it the "big bear" because they saw a bear in the outline of the constellation.

Ursa Major contains a group of seven bright stars resembling a large dipper called the Big Dipper. The first two stars of the bowl of the dipper point toward Polaris, the North Star. The ability to locate Polaris is useful in navigation.

The constellation Ursa Minor (the Little Bear), the most northern constellation, contains the Little Dipper, a group of stars resembling a smaller dipper. The star Polaris (the North Star; the Pole Star; the polestar) at the end of the handle of the dipper always points to the North.

The Big Dipper and the Little Dipper can be seen from northern latitudes all night on clear nights. Their stars are circumpolar: they never set below the horizon; they move around the north celestial pole, and Polaris remains above the North Pole.

Ancient tests of eyesight included checking the ability to see Alcor, a faint star near the star Mizar in the handle of the Big Dipper.

Cassiopeia is a circumpolar constellation in the Northern Hemisphere. It lies in the Milky Way opposite the Big Dipper (near Polaris, the North Star). Cassiopeia's five bright stars form a figure that resembles the letter W (or M).

Taurus is a zodiacal constellation between Aries and Gemini. Taurus contains the red giant star Aldebaran, one of the brightest stars in the sky. Aldebaran's brightness is 150 times that of the Sun.

Taurus contains two star clusters visible to the naked eye, the Pleiades and the Hyades. The Crab Nebula, which is considered to be a remnant of the supernova that exploded in A.D. 1054, is also located in the constellation Taurus.

Brightest stars: Examples in sentences

Greek astronomers Hipparchus (2nd century B.C.) and Ptolemy (2nd century A.D.) divided visible stars into six groups according to their visual brightness as seen by the naked eye. The first group, the brightest stars, were stars of the first magnitude; stars of the second magnitude were a little less bright; the faintest stars (barely visible to the naked eye) had a magnitude of 6.

Centuries later, when it became possible to measure stellar magnitudes more accurately, it was found that some of the first-magnitude stars were brighter than first magnitude. Such stars were assigned magnitudes lower than 1. Sirius, the brightest star in the sky, has a magnitude of –1.46; Capella, one of the brightest stars in the northern sky, has a magnitude of 0.08.

Stars of the first magnitude are approximately two and a half times as bright as stars of the second magnitude. Stars of the first magnitude are approximately a hundred times brighter than stars of the sixth magnitude. Stars of first to sixth magnitude can be seen with the naked eye, without a telescope.

Supergiants are the brightest stars. The supergiants Betelgeuse (alpha Orionis), Antares (alpha Scorpii) and Deneb (alpha Cygni) are among the brightest naked-eye stars, and they are located in the most spectacular constellations Orion, Scorpius and Cygnus (the Swan).

Betelgeuse is a red supergiant star in the constellation Orion. Betelgeuse is one of the largest stars known. The name Betelgeuse is of Arabic origin. It means "shoulder of the giant". (In Greek mythology, Orion was a giant hunter.)

Proxima Centauri, a star of the 11th magnitude about 4.2 light-years away, is the closest to the Sun. Alpha Centauri, a first-magnitude star about 4.4 light-years from the Sun, is visible to the naked eye.

Some of the nearest brightest stars are Sirius, Procyon and Altair. Sirius is located at a distance of about 8.7 light-years (about 2.7 parsecs), and Procyon is at a distance of about 11.5 light-years (about 3.5 parsecs). Altair is about 16.7 light-years away (about 4.8 parsecs). (One parsec is 3.26 light years.)

Sirius is the brightest star in the sky. The Greek word "Seirios" meant "scorching", but the star was often called the Dog Star because of its location in the constellation of Canis Major (the Great Dog).

Acrux (Alpha Crucis) is the brightest star in the constellation Crux, the Southern Cross. The longer arm of the cross in the constellation points to the South.

Vega (magnitude 0.03) is one of the brightest stars in the northern sky and one of the three vertices of the so-called Summer Triangle – a large clearly visible triangle formed by Deneb (Alpha Cygni), Vega (Alpha Lyrae) and Altair (Alpha Aquilae).

Algol is a star of the second magnitude in the constellation Perseus. Algol (Beta Persei) is the first known eclipsing binary star.

Castor and Pollux are the two bright stars in the constellation Gemini. In Greek mythology, Castor and Pollux (sons of Leda) are twin brothers famous for their fraternal affection.

Related vocabulary

universe, cosmos, space; galaxy; nebula; star cluster; constellation, star;

heavenly bodies, celestial bodies; celestial map; stellar map; astronomy; astrology;

giant star; supergiant; nova, supernova; binary star; pulsar; white dwarf; black hole;

solar system; sun, planet, satellite, moon; orbit; motion; position; atmosphere;

the celestial sphere; the heavens; the sky; the northern sky; the southern sky; the horizon;

the celestial pole; the North Pole; the South Pole; axis; the Earth's axis;

eclipse; solar eclipse; lunar eclipse; partial eclipse; total eclipse;

meteor, meteorite; shooting star, falling star; meteor shower; asteroid; comet;

size, diameter, radius, area, surface, mass, volume, density, gravity;

distance, light-year, parsec; magnitude, brightness, luminosity; temperature;

to orbit; to revolve; to rotate; to spin.

Note: Singular and plural

axis – axes ; nebula – nebulae, nebulas; nova – novae, novas; supernova – supernovae, supernovas; vertex – vertices, vertexes. (See "Latin and Greek plural forms" in Irregular Plural Nouns in the section Writing.)

Note adjectives:

astronomical; physical; cosmic, galactic, extragalactic; atmospheric; seismic;

stellar, interstellar (межзвёздный); nebular; solar, lunar; polar; globular; planetary;

circumpolar (околополярный, околополюсный); circumpolar star; circumpolar constellation;

orbital; gravitational; terrestrial, extraterrestrial; celestial; earthly; heavenly;

visual, visible, invisible; bright, luminous.