Practice Materials for Consonant Clusters

These materials can be used as additional phonetic exercises for practicing typical initial and final consonant clusters in short frequently used words. Be careful not to insert the neutral sound [ə] between the consonant sounds of the clusters. Note on transcription symbols: [θ] as in the word THIN; [ð] as in THIS; [sh] as in SHE; [zh] as in MIRAGE; [ch] as in CHEESE; [j] as in JANE; [ŋ] as in LONG.

Эти материалы можно использовать как дополнительные фонетические упражнения на типичные начальные и конечные сочетания согласных звуков в коротких часто употребляемых словах. Будьте внимательны и не вставляйте нейтральный звук [ə] между согласными звуками кластерного сочетания согласных. Примечание о знаках транскрипции: [θ] как в слове THIN; [ð] как в THIS; [sh] как в SHE; [zh] как в MIRAGE; [ch] как в CHEESE; [j] как в JANE; [ŋ] как в LONG.

Initial consonant clusters

[pl], [pr], [bl], [br]

plead – please – plink – pleasant – plenty – plan – plastic – platter – plaza – plot – plural – plume – plug – pluck – plum – plump – plus – play – place – plain – plane – plague – plywood – plight – plow – plosive;

preach – priest – pretty – prepare – prefer – print – prison – press – present – pregnant – practice – practical – prank – problem – product – profit – proof – prove – prune – prude – professor – promote – praise – pray – prayer – price – pride – prime – private – prize – pry – proud – prowl – prose – probe – prone – program;

bleed – bleak – blink – bliss – bless – blend – black – blank – blast – block – blond – blue – bloom – blur – blood – blame – blaze – blind – blow – bloat;

breed – breeze – breathe – brief – bring – brick – brim – bread – breast – brand – bracket – bra – broad – broth – brood – broom – brook – brother – brush – brain – break – brace – bright – brow – brown – browser – broil – broken;

[tr], [dr]

tree – treat – trim – trip – trick – trend – tread – track – trap – travel – tram – trauma – true – troop – trust – truck – trunk – tray – trace – train – trail – try – tribe – trout – troll;

dream – drill – drink – drip – draft – drama – draw – drop – droop – drew – drum – drunk – drain – drape – dry – drive – drown – drone – drove;

[kl], [kr], [gl], [gr]

clean – clear – click – cling – clever – cleft – clan – class – clasp – clue – clerk – club – claim – clay – climb – cloud – clown – close – clone;

cream – creed – critical – crib – credit – crest – crack – crash – crawl – cross – crop – crew – cruise – crude – crook – crush – crust – crazy – crane – cry – crime – crisis – crowd – crown – crow;

glee – glib – glimpse – glare – glad – glamor – glance – glue – gloomy – glum – glide – globe – global;

green – Greek – grief – grease – grip – grim – grin – grab – gram – grand – grasp – grew – groom – group – great – grade – grave – grime – grind – ground – grow – grown – growth – gross;

[fl], [fr]

flee – fleece – flick – flint – flip – flesh – flex – flare – flap – flax – floor – flock – floss – flew – flu – flirt – flame – flake – fly – flight – Floyd – flow – flown;

free – freeze – freak – frequent – frisk – frigid – Fred – friend – fresh – Frank – fraction – fragment – fragile – fraud – frog – frost – fruit – frame – fragrant – phrase – freight – fry – fright – frown – froze;

[θr], [shr]

three – thrifty – thrill – thread – threat – threshhold – thrash – throng – throb – through – threw – thrush – thrust – thrice – thrive – throat – throw – thrown – throne,

shriek – shrimp – shrink – shred – shredder – shrewd – shrug – shrine;

[sk], [skr]

ski – skin – skip – skim – scare – scan – scatter – scar – score – scoff – school – scuba – skirt – skunk – skull – sculpture – skate – scale – sky – scout – scoundrel – scope – scold;

scream – screen – screech – scribble – scrimp – script – scrap – scratch – scramble – scrawl – screw – scrooge – scruple – scrutiny – scrub – scrape – scroll;

[sl], [sm], [sn]

sleep – sleet – sleeve – sleazy – sling – slick – slim – slip – slit – slender – sledge – slam – slap – slash – slack – slang – slot – slob – sloppy – sluice – slew – slur – slurp – slum – slug – slave – slay – sleigh – sly – slide – slight – slime – slouch – slow – slope – slogan;

smear – Smith – smell – smash – smack – smart – small – smog – smock – smooth – smooch – smother – smudge – smug – smile – smoke – smolder;

sneeze – sneak – sneer – sniff – snip – snare – snack – snap – snatch – snarl – snore – snort – snorkel – snob – snoop – snug – snake – snail – snipe – sniper – snout – snow;

[sp], [spl], [spr]

speak – speed – spin – spit – spill – spirit – spend – special – speck – spell – spare – span – spam – spark – spa – sport – spot – sponsor – spoon – spool – spook – spur – sponge – Spain – space – spy – spice – spike – spine – spite – spout – spouse – spoil – spoke – spoken;

spleen – split – splint – splinter – splendid – splendor – splash – splotch – splurge – splay – splice;

spree – spring – sprint – sprinkle – spread – sprang – sprawl – spruce – sprung – spray – sprain – sprite – sprout;

[st], [str]

steal – steam – steel – steep – steer – stick – still – stiff – step – stencil – sterile – stare – stair – stand – stamp – stab – statue – staff – star – stark – start – store – stork – storm – stop – stock – story – stew – stool – stoop – student – stir – sterling – stern – study – stuff – stub – stubborn – stun – stunt – stumble – stay – stake – state – stain – style – sty – stout – stone – stove – stow;

street – stream – streak – strict – string – strip – stress – stretch – strength – strand – strangle – strap – stratosphere – straw – strong – struck – structure – struggle – strange – strain – straight – stray – strike – stripe – strive – stride – stroke – stroll;

[sw], [tw], [dw], [kw], [skw], [gw]

sweet – sweep – swim – swift – switch – swing – swindle – Swiss – swivel – swell – swept – sweat – swear – swore – sworn – swarm – swan – swallow – swamp – swab – swap – swung – sway – swine – swollen;

tweed – tweezer – twin – twist – twig – twelve – twenty – twang – twice – twilight – twine;

dwarf – dwell – dwindle – Dwayne – Dwight;

queen – queer – quick – quit – question – quest – quarrel – quart – quarter – quite – quiet – quote – quotation;

squeeze – squeak – squeal – squid – square – squad – squander – squash – squat – squirrel – squirt;

Gwen – Gwendolen – Guatemala.

Final consonant clusters

[ft], [kt]

drift – gift – lift – sift – left – draft – shaft – loft – soft;

act – fact – tact – elect – affect – depict – deduct;

[lt], [ld]

belt – dealt – felt – melt – built – guilt – kilt – tilt – halt – malt – fault – default – vault – bolt – colt – jolt;

old – bold – cold – fold – gold – hold – mold – scold – sold – told – child – mild – wild – field – build – held – bald – world;

[lk], [lp], [lb]

milk – silk – elk – bulk – hulk – sulk;

help – yelp – palp – pulp – bulb;

[lf], [lv]

self – elf – shelf – golf – gulf – wolf – Ralph – Rolph – Rudolph;

solve – involve – valve – delve;

[lch], [lj], [lm], [ls]

belch – bilge – bulge – divulge;

film – helm – realm – else – pulse;

[mp], [mf]

limp – temp – camp – lamp – ramp – stamp – stomp – bump – dump – jump – plump – rump – stump;

lymph – nymph – triumph;

[nt], [nd]

mint – lint – sent – spent – bent – tent – vent – moment – agreement – statement – pant – can't – haunt – want – hunt – paint – saint – pint – point – joint;

wind – send – spend – lend – friend – attend – band – land – hand – sand – bond – fond – pond – fund – find – kind – bind – mind – behind – rind – wind – found – round – sound – pound;

[nch], [nj]

finch – pinch – bench – French – branch – ranch – launch – crunch – hunch – lunch;

change – range – strange – binge – cringe – fringe – tinge – sponge – lunge – lounge;

[ns], [nz]

rinse – since – mince – wince – dense – fence – sense – absence – license – science – chance – dance – fragrance – ounce;

cleanse [klenz] – lens [lenz];

[ŋk]

pink [piŋk] – ink – drink – think – link – mink – sink – shrink – wink – bank – banker – sank – rank – frank – spank – tank – honk – monk – monkey – drunk – junk – punk – skunk – distinct – jinx – wrinkle – uncle – ankle – anchor – anxious – banquet ['bæŋkwit];

[ŋg]

finger ['fiŋgər] – linger – hunger – hungry – anger – angry – longer – longest – stronger – strongest – younger – youngest – congress (n.) – mongrel – single – angle – strangle – tangle – language – lingo – linguist – distinguish;

Note: The sound combination [ŋg] does not occur at the end of English words. It is given here for comparison with [ŋk], which can be at the end and in the middle of words. (Звуковое сочетание [ŋg] не встречается в конце английских слов. Оно дано здесь для сравнения с [ŋk], которое может быть в конце и в середине слов.)

[ps], [pt]

perhaps – lapse – collapse – ellipse – glimpse – oops;

apt – rapt – leapt – crept – kept – accept – crypt – script – adopt – erupt – attempt – tempt;

[sk], [sp], [st]

risk – flask – mask – task – desk – mosque – dusk – husk;

lisp – crisp – wisp – clasp – grasp – wasp;

least – feast – beast – mist – wrist – best – chest – test – fast – last – past – cost – lost – first – thirst – burst – dust – must – rust – paste – taste – waste – boast – coast – roast – most – post;

Clusters with final [θ]

month – health – wealth – stealth – filth – warmth – strength – length – width – breadth – depth;

seventh – ninth – tenth – fifteenth – sixteenth – thirteenth – sixth – fifth – twelfth – eighth [eitθ] – hundredth – thousandth.

Note: length [leŋθ] or [leŋkθ]; strength [streŋθ] or [streŋkθ].

Final consonant clusters with the ending S/ES

[ps], [ts], [ks]

stops – lamps – helps – writes – tests – texts – links – thanks – sharks;

[bz], [dz], [gz]

rubs – bulbs – needs – holds – worlds – thousands – pigs – legs;

[fs], [θs]

beliefs – laughs – gulfs – cliffs – deaths – myths – births;

[vz], [ðz]

leaves – knives – wolves – valves – saves – clothes – breathes – bathes;

Note: cloths [kloðz] or [kloθs]; clothes [klouðz] or [klouz]; oaths [ouðz]; BrE: baths [ba:ðz] or [ba:θs]; AmE: baths [bæðz] or [bæθs];

[mz], [nz], [ŋz], [lz]

homes – storms – cleans – fans – lungs – rings – girls – thrills.

Final consonant clusters with the ending ED

[pt], [kt], [ft]

hoped – stopped – tipped – linked – locked – marked – sniffed – laughed – coughed;

[st], [sht], [cht]

missed – danced – mixed – washed – rushed – fished – watched – reached – searched;

[bd], [gd]

robbed – stabbed – tubed – begged – lagged – logged – hugged;

[vd], [ðd], [zd]

lived – received – saved – bathed – breathed – clothed – seized – raised – closed;

[zhd], [jd]

rouged – charged – managed – paged;

[md], [nd], [ŋd], [ld]

filmed – armed – planned – rained – hanged – banged – called – hurled – sealed.

Note: See pronunciation charts for the endings S/ES and ED in English Consonant Sounds in the section Phonetics. Rules for adding S/ES and ED are described in Adding the Ending s/es to Nouns and Verbs and Adding the Endings ed, ing to Verbs in the section Writing.

Примечание: Посмотрите таблицы произношения окончаний S/ES и ED в материале English Consonant Sounds в разделе Phonetics. Правила прибавления S/ES и ED описаны в статьях Adding the Ending s/es to Nouns and Verbs и Adding the Endings ed, ing to Verbs в разделе Writing.

Other final consonant combinations

Some final consonant combinations which do not have a vowel between the consonants in spelling can be pronounced with or without the neutral sound [ə] between the consonants: pl, bl, tl, dl, cl, gl, fl, thm, sm. Also, the neutral sound may or may not be pronounced in final unstressed suffixes which have a vowel or vowels between such consonants in spelling. Such consonant combinations may or may not be consonant clusters depending on whether the neutral sound is absent or present. Compare these examples:

Некоторые конечные сочетания согласных, которые не имеют гласной между согласными в написании, могут произноситься с нейтральным звуком [ə] или без него между согласными: pl, bl, tl, dl, cl, gl, fl, thm, sm. Также, нейтральный звук может произноситься или не произноситься в конечных неударных суффиксах, в которых есть гласная или гласные между такими согласными в написании. Такие сочетания согласных могут быть или не быть кластерами в зависимости от отсутствия или присутствия нейтрального звука. Сравните эти примеры:

apple ['æpəl] – ['æpl], table ['teibəl] – ['teibl];

little ['litəl] – ['litl], riddle ['ridəl] – ['ridl];

miracle ['mirəkəl] – ['mirəkl], eagle ['i:gəl] – ['i:gl];

rifle ['raifəl] – ['raifl], waffle ['wofəl] – ['wofl];

rhythm ['riðəm] – ['riðm], prism ['prizəm] – ['prizm];

kitten ['kitən] – ['kitn], hidden ['hidən] – ['hidn];

lesson ['lesən] – ['lesn], mention ['menshən] – ['menshn].