Health and Diseases

Note: This material is a collection of English words and phrases for the topics Health, Human body, Diseases, Medical care. The material does not offer any suggestions or recommendations on how to stay healthy or treat diseases.

Примечание: Данный материал представляет собой подборку английских слов и фраз по темам Health, Human body, Diseases, Medical care. Данный материал не предлагает советов и рекомендаций о том, как оставаться здоровым или лечить болезни.

Healthy living

healthy living; healthy lifestyle; to be in good health; to feel well;

balanced diet; nutritious food; to have regular meals; to eat plenty of fruit and vegetables;

proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals;

to be overweight; to go on a diet; to stay slim;

physical fitness; regular exercise; sports;

to do morning exercises; to exercise regularly; to play sports; to go in for sports;

to feel well; to be in good health; to be physically fit; to be in good shape;

healthy environment; clean water; fresh air; to quit smoking; to give up smoking;

to sleep well; to have a good sleep; to have / to get a good night's sleep; to have eight hours of sleep;

coping with stress; to cope with stress;

regular medical checkups; preventing injuries and diseases.

Human body

body and soul; flesh and blood; skin and bones.


head, skull, brain, face, ears, hair;

face, forehead, temples, eyebrows, eyes, cheeks, nose, mouth, lips, chin;

eye, eyelid, eyelashes, eye socket (eye orbit), eyeball, pupil, iris, retina, lens, optic nerve;

nose, bridge of the nose, nostrils, sinuses;

mouth, jaws, teeth, gums, tongue, tip of the tongue, hard palate, soft palate, uvula;

tooth, teeth; front teeth, back teeth, upper teeth, lower teeth; molar, premolar, incisor, canine tooth, wisdom tooth, milk tooth;

ear, earlobe, middle ear, eardrum.


body, neck, chest, stomach, back, buttocks, arms, hands, legs, feet;

skeleton, bone, bone marrow, spine, collarbone, breastbone, rib, pelvis;

spine / backbone / spinal column / vertebral column; vertebra, vertebrae; coccyx;

joint, tendon, ligament, muscle;

neck, Adam's apple, nape of the neck, throat, pharynx, larynx, vocal cords;

torso, trunk, chest, breast, nipple, diaphragm, abdomen, navel.


upper limbs, arm, shoulder, armpit, elbow, forearm, wrist, hand;

hand, palm, fingers, thumb, index finger, middle finger, ring finger, little finger, fingernail;

lower limbs, leg, hip, thigh, knee, kneecap, calf, shin, ankle, foot;

foot, feet, sole, heel, toes, big toe, little toe, toenail.

Internal organs

circulatory system, respiratory system, digestive system, nervous system, urinary tract;

heart, lung, trachea, bronchi, esophagus, stomach, gall bladder (gallbladder), liver, small intestine, large intestine, kidney, bladder, spleen;

aorta, artery, vein, capillary, blood, lymph, blood vessel, blood circulation;

endocrine glands, thyroid gland, pituitary gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, lymph glands;

reproductive organs, conception, pregnancy, embryo, fetus, childbirth;

to be pregnant; to have a baby; to give birth to a male child (to a female child);

body fluids / bodily fluids; blood (red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma), lymph; gastric juice, bile, mucus, tears, saliva, sweat, urine.

Blood groups / blood types

blood group A; blood group B; blood group AB; blood group O;

OR: blood type A; blood type B; blood type AB; blood type O;

Rh factor (Rhesus factor); Rh-positive blood, Rh-negative blood;

Examples: Peter has type A blood with a positive Rh factor. His blood type is A positive. Mike is Type O negative. He is Rh negative. Anna is type B positive. She is type B+. I am AB negative.

Diseases and disorders

disease, malady, ailment, illness, sickness, disorder, health problem;

chronic disease, acute disease, serious disease, heart disease, common diseases;

infectious disease, contagious disease; communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases;

to have a heart disease; to suffer from asthma; to catch an infectious disease;

minor disorder, major disorder, nutrition disorder, blood disorders, mental disorders, congenital disorders, hereditary disorders, hormonal disorders;

to have a minor kidney disorder; to have a serious genetic disorder;

to fall ill; to be ill; to be sick; to be in poor health; to be in bad shape;

to have a cold; to catch cold; to come down with a cold; to come down with pneumonia; to go down with a cold (with pneumonia);

to have a headache; to have a toothache; to have earache; to have a pain in the stomach; to have chest pains; my left foot hurts; my wrist hurts;

to have an allergy to medication (to medicines); to be allergic to pollen (to animal hair; to smoke); to have food allergies;

to faint, to lose consciousness; to be unconscious; to regain consciousness;

to treat, to cure, to heal; to be on the mend; to recover (from an illness); to get well.

Specific diseases, disorders, injuries

Skin: skin irritation, skin inflammation; redness, tenderness, swelling; rash, dermatitis, itchy skin, itching; acne, pimple, boil; blister, burn, scar, scratch; corn, callus, wart, eczema, psoriasis.

Hair: dandruff, split ends, thinning hair, hair loss, baldness.

Eye: nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, crossed eyes, conjunctivitis, sty, retinal detachment, cataract, glaucoma, blindness, color-blindness.

Ear: wax blockage, hearing loss, earache, ruptured eardrum; otitis, inflammation of the ear.

Nose, throat, lungs: nosebleed, runny nose, stuffy nose, rhinitis, allergic rhinitis, hay fever, sinusitis, a cold, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma.

Heart and circulation: atherosclerosis, hypertension, high blood pressure, heart disease, coronary heart disease, coronary thrombosis, heart failure, heart attack, cardiac arrest, congenital heart disease, varicose veins, thrombophlebitis.

Blood: anemia, bleeding, internal bleeding, hemorrhage, hemophilia, leukemia.

Brain and nervous system: headache, migraine, dizziness, giddiness, vertigo, fainting spell, neuralgia, meningitis, epilepsy, convulsions, seizure, stroke, paralysis, cerebral palsy, dementia.

Nutrition: vitamin deficiency, mineral deficiency; obesity; to be overweight; weight loss, anorexia, bulimia.

Stomach, intestines: heartburn, indigestion, dyspepsia, upset stomach, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, gastritis, ulcer, gastroenteritis, colitis, constipation, appendicitis, hemorrhoids, dysentery, cholera.

Liver: hepatitis, jaundice, cirrhosis. Gall bladder: gallstones, cholecystitis.

Kidneys, urinary bladder: pyelonephritis, kidney stones, cystitis.

Bones, joints: backache / back pain, scoliosis, osteoporosis, arthritis.

Muscles: muscle spasm, muscle cramp, muscular dystrophy, hernia.

Injuries: injury, wound, trauma; hand injury, knee injury, foot injury, head injury; concussion, contusion; fracture, fractured bone; slipped disc, prolapsed disc; dislocation, sprain, sprained ankle, pulled muscle, bruise; to break one's arm; to have a broken arm.

General infections, systemic infections: the flu (influenza), tuberculosis, tetanus, rabies, yellow fever, typhoid, smallpox, anthrax, leprosy.

Infectious diseases (especially in childhood): measles, rubella / German measles, mumps, whooping cough / pertussis, diphtheria, polio, chicken pox, scarlet fever.

Infestations, parasites: tapeworm, pinworm, hookworm, roundworm; scabies, lice, fleas, ticks; malaria.

Hormonal disorders: diabetes; disorders of the pituitary gland; disorders of the thyroid gland.

Oncology: benign tumor, malignant tumor; cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, stomach cancer, skin cancer.

Mental disorders: depression, phobia, schizophrenia.

Addictions: alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction; drug abuse, drug addiction.

Medical care

Doctors, medical specialists

physician, general practitioner, family doctor; pediatrician;

surgeon, neurosurgeon, plastic surgeon, orthopedic surgeon, orthopedist;

neurologist, dermatologist, gastroenterologist, urologist, rheumatologist, psychiatrist, oncologist, dentist, dietician;

cardiologist (heart specialist); ophthalmologist (eye specialist); otolaryngologist (ear, nose and throat specialist);

women's doctor, gynecologist, obstetrician;

anesthesiologist, radiologist, pharmacist, veterinarian;

nurse, paramedic.

Medical examinations, tests, operations

to examine, to diagnose, to treat; examination, diagnosis, treatment;

physical examination; to be examined by a doctor; to have a checkup; to have a medical;

blood test, urine test, X-ray, electrocardiogram;

to take a temperature; to take a blood test; to take an X-ray;

to measure weight and height; to measure blood pressure;

to check the pulse; check your pulse rate; to take the patient's pulse; to count the pulse; to count the heartbeats;

vaccination, immunization; medical history;

to dress the wound; to put a broken arm in a cast; to give an injection (to give a shot);

to check into a hospital; to have an operation; to undergo an operation;

to give a blood transfusion; to donate blood; blood donor;

tonsils removal, appendix removal, heart surgery, organ transplantation, kidney transplant;

plastic surgery, cosmetic surgery, skin graft.

Dental care

dental care, toothpaste, toothbrush, mouthwash, dental floss;

to wear braces; to have dentures;

to have a toothache; to go to the dentist;

to have a cavity; to drill the tooth; to fill the cavity; to fill the tooth; to have a tooth filled;

to have root canal treatment; to have a tooth capped;

to have a tooth pulled; to have a wisdom tooth extracted.

Medical instruments

thermometer, eye dropper, nose dropper, hot-water bag, hot-water bottle, heating pad, enema;

tongue depressor, stethoscope, syringe, scalpel;

bandage, sterile gauze, cotton wool, adhesive plaster, Band-Aid, elastic bandage, tourniquet;

ice pack, sling, cast, crutches, stretcher.


medicine, drug, medication, preparation, medicament, remedy;

a cold medicine, a medicine for a cold, cold remedies;

to prescribe medication; to give a prescription (for allergy, rash, cough, etc.);

to take medicines; to take a pill; to take aspirin;

pill, tablet, capsule, powder, drops, syrup, tincture, lotion, spray, ointment, cream;

analgesic (analgetic), antacid, antibiotic, tranquillizer, contraceptive, laxative, decongestant;

antiseptic, antibacterial spray, rubbing alcohol, iodine; to paint with iodine;

medicine chest, medicine cabinet; first-aid kit.

(See Visiting a Doctor in the section Phrases.)