The list below provides typical examples of use for verb synonyms that often present a problem for learners of English. (Russian translation of the main meanings is indicated in parentheses.) Examples of use help us to see the differences between these synonyms and provide useful phrases that we can use in speech and writing. Note that the verbs listed in one and the same group are not necessarily close synonyms.
Список ниже дает типичные примеры употребления глаголов-синонимов, которые часто представляют трудность для изучающих английский язык. (Русский перевод основных значений указан в круглых скобках.) Примеры употребления помогают нам увидеть различия между этими синонимами и дают полезные фразы, которые мы можем употребить в устной и письменной речи. Обратите внимание, что глаголы, указанные в одной и той же группе, не обязательно являются близкими синонимами.
ALLOW (разрешить, позволить): allow the children to watch TV; allow the students to leave early; he allowed them to stay in his house; I was not allowed to visit her; smoking is not allowed here; she does not allow using her computer; allow me to help you; allow me to explain; allow me to introduce myself; she allows herself no chocolate; his parents allow him ten dollars a day for books; she spends more than her budget allows; allow at least two hours for changing planes.
PERMIT (разрешить, позволить): the law permits it; they permitted him to visit the prison; she wasn't permitted to talk to him; they don't permit parking here; permit me to explain; his tone permitted of no objection; these facts permit of no doubt; call me when time permits; we'll go there, weather permitting.
LET (less formal: разрешить, позволить): let me help you; let me do it for you; let me talk to him; let me explain; let me tell you; let me introduce myself; let me see; let me think; let me guess; let me know; I'll let you know about it; he let them stay in his house; let me pass; let him go; let her try; let her finish; don't let it happen again; let it be; let it go; let go of my hand; let me in; let me out; let him be; let him alone; he can't sit, let alone walk; she lets rooms to students; let's go; let's wait for him; let us say; let us assume that this is true; let us not forget that he is only 20 years old.
ASK (спрашивать; просить): ask a question; I asked him a question; she asked me about my work (my family, friends, plans); he asked after her health; she asked what he was going to do; she asked whether he wanted something to eat; ask directions; ask the way; ask the time; she asked politely (anxiously, nervously, quietly, softly, loudly, amiably, coldly, dryly, sarcastically, suspiciously); Can I ask you something? I forgot to ask him about it; I wanted to ask; I meant to ask; I didn't dare (to) ask; I couldn't help asking; I couldn't resist asking; ask for help (for advice; for money; for a favor; for more information); ask (for) permission to do something; he asked for the manager; here's the book you asked for; she asked me to help her; ask him to do it; they asked her to dinner; she asked to see him; he asked to be excused from the meeting; I have a favor to ask (of you); you are asking too much (of me); if it's not too much to ask.
BEG (умолять): beg for money (for help, for food, for mercy, for life); beg forgiveness; beg permission; beg a favor; beg alms; beg one's bread; beg from door to door; she begged to go with us; they begged him to help their family; she begged them to show mercy; she practically begged him not to leave her; he begged her to forgive him; he almost begged for this job; beg humbly; she begged that she be allowed to stay with her children; she was forced to beg; I beg your pardon? I beg to differ; I beg to disagree; I beg of you not to go there; those jobs went begging; beg the question.
REQUEST (вежливо, официально просить): he requested an answer (a favor); he requests permission to speak; the bank requests payment; she requests that I should be there; he requests to be excused from this duty (from the meeting); he requested them to be present at the meeting; an answer is requested (of you); he acted as requested; visitors are requested to keep off the grass; we repeatedly (immediately, urgently, specifically, expressly, politely, formally) requested more information from them.
BEAR (нести ношу, выдержать, родить): bear the burden of something; bear the consequences; bear responsibility; bear the cost; bear the blame; bear the cross; bear pain; the right to bear arms; bear a resemblance; bear witness; bear a grudge against someone; bear oneself with dignity; bear in mind; the ice won't bear his weight; I can't bear this heat; I can hardly bear to see him; please bear with me; the trees bear fruit; she bore him three sons; she has borne two daughters; he was born in 1993.
CARRY (нести): carry a bag; carry a suitcase; I'll carry this bag for you; carry a baby in one's arms; carry a gun; carry small change in the pocket; carry one's head high; this pipe carries water to the village; wind carries sound; she carried the news to all of her neighbors; carry something too far; carry to extremes; don't get carried away.
BEAT (бить): her heart was beating fast; rain was beating against the windows; beat the rhythm; beat the drum; beat an alarm; beat the rug; they beat an old man; they beat him to death; beat someone black and blue; beat with a stick; you can't beat anything into his head; beat a path; beat the eggs; beat the record; she beat him at chess; it beats me how she did it; he beat me to it.
HIT (ударить): hit the ball; hit the nail with a hammer; he hit her; hit someone on the head; he hit his elbow on the door; hit hard; hit with a stick; he was hit by a car; the car hit the tree; prices hit a new low; the bullet hit the target; hit the mark; hit home; hit the nail on the head; hit below the belt; hit someone where it hurts; hit the ceiling; hit the road; hit the hay; hit someone's fancy.
STRIKE (ударить): strike a blow; strike the nail with a hammer; he struck her; strike someone on the head; he struck his elbow on the door; strike with a stick; strike hard; strike repeatedly; the ship struck a rock; the lightning struck the tree; the clock struck nine; strike a match; strike a bargain; strike a deal; strike hands; strike a balance; strike home; strike oil; strike it rich; strike someone's fancy; strike someone speechless; it strikes me as strange.
KNOCK (стучать, ударить): knock at the door; knock on the door; knock on wood; knock twice; knock lightly; knock loudly; the engine is knocking badly; knock a glass from the table; knock a vase to pieces; the blow knocked him unconscious; knock into a table; knock down; knock out; knock over.
BEGIN (начать): begin work at nine o'clock; the concert begins at seven; I don't know where to begin; Where do I begin? begin at the beginning; we begin tomorrow; she began to cry; she began crying; let's begin; Shall I begin? I can't begin to understand it; beginning with January; the day began with good news; What shall we begin with? let's begin with tea; To begin with, how did he get in the house?
START (начать, особенно новое): start work at nine o'clock; When do I start? we start tomorrow; she started to cry; she started crying; start a journey; start a car; start a conversation; start a fight; start a family; start a new company; he started his own business; the fire started in the basement; starting with January; the day started with good news; we'll start with coffee; start from the beginning; start from scratch; the bell rang so loudly that I started; she started with fear when she heard his voice.
COMMENCE (formal: начать): commence legal proceedings; commence proceedings in court; commence a court action; commence a lawsuit; commence prosecution.
CHOOSE (выбирать из двух или более; предпочесть, решить): choose a tie; choose a car; choose a book for me; choose friends; choose the cast; choose a chairman; choose one's words; choose between two evils; choose carefully; choose well; choose poorly; he chose wisely; choose freely; you are free to choose whichever you want; choose anything you want; there's nothing to choose from; choose for yourself; she chose to leave; he chose to stay.
SELECT (more formal: выбирать, отбирать из группы): select a wine; select a tie; select a jury; select the cast; they selected him to represent them; select goods from a catalogue; select carefully; select deliberately; select tastefully; select fastidiously; select arbitrarily; select at random; select automatically.
PICK (less formal: выбирать, отбирать из группы): she always picks the best; they picked the best candidate; pick one's words carefully; you can't pick and choose in this situation.
PICK OUT (less formal: выбирать, отбирать из группы): pick out the dress that you like; she picked out the red one; she always picks out the best fruit on the market; pick out for yourself the tomatoes that you want to buy.
ELECT (избрать официально; предпочесть, решить): elect a chairman; they elected him chairman; he was elected chairman; elect a mayor; elect as a candidate; he was elected to the city council; elect unanimously; elect for the term of five years; elect by popular vote; she elected to leave; he elected to remain silent.
CLEAN (очищать): clean the shoes; clean the clothes; clean the carpet; clean your room; clean the window; clean out the closet; clean out one's savings; clean one's plate.
CLEAR (очищать, прояснять): clear the table after dinner; clear a path; clear the way; clear snow from the driveway; clear the room of people; clear out the closet; clear up the mess; clear the meaning; clear up the mystery; clear one's throat; clear one's voice; clear one's mind; clear one's name; clear oneself of a charge; the sky is clearing; the weather is clearing up.
CLOSE (закрыть): close the door; close the window; the window will not close; close with a bang; close your books; close your eyes; close your mouth; close the store for the night; the stores are closed now; the bank closes at 5:00; close a bank account; close a road; close the border; close down a factory; close a hole; close a case; close a meeting; the discussion is closed; close a deal; close a sale on a house; his wounds closed.
SHUT (закрыть): shut the door; shut the window; shut the lid; shut your books; shut your eyes; shut your mouth; Shut up! shut the store for the night; shut the dogs in the barn; shut down a factory; my computer shut down; they shut him from their circle.
Note: LOCK (запирать на замок): lock the door; lock the gate; lock the building; lock the store; lock the dogs in the barn; lock up a prisoner; he locked her in his arms; gears locked into place; it locks automatically.
COLLECT (собирать; коллекционировать): collect information; collect data; collect facts; collect signatures; collect stamps; collect coins; collect rare books; collect taxes; collect a debt; collect a bill; collect on delivery; he went to the post office to collect his mail; collect oneself; collect one's courage; collect one's thoughts; students collected in the hall; a crowd collected at the scene of the accident; rain water collected in the tank.
GATHER (собирать; набирать силу, скорость): gather your toys from the floor; gather the pieces of a broken cup; she gathered her things and left; gather in a heap; gather flowers; gather strawberries; gather wild berries; gather fruit; gather mushrooms; gather a good crop; gather information; gather facts; gather strength; gather speed; gather experience; gather dust; gather oneself; gather one's courage; gather one's thoughts; the street show gathered a crowd; students gathered in the hall; they gathered around the table; clouds are gathering.
PICK (less formal: собирать цветы, ягоды и т.д.): pick flowers; pick strawberries; pick wild berries; pick mushrooms.
PICK UP (less formal: подбирать, поднимать; набирать силу, скорость; прибирать комнату): pick up a penny from the floor; she picked up her things and left; he went to the post office to pick up his mail; I'll pick you up at seven o'clock; the dog picked up the scent; pick up strength; pick up speed; the wind is picking up; business is picking up; a cup of strong tea will pick me up; you need to pick up your room.
COME (приходить): come home; come here; come to my house; come over for dinner; Can you come? Won't you come in? come in, please; come back; come with me; come quickly; come early; come again; I came here by bus; the train from Boston comes at noon; she comes from Texas; June comes after May; winter is coming; come of age; come true; come what may; come in handy; come into effect; come into a fortune; come to light; come to an end; come to nothing; come to a decision; come to a conclusion; it came to me that I had seen him before; you had it coming; they come and go.
ARRIVE (прибыть): arrive in London; arrive by train; arrive in the evening; the train arrives at three; arrive early; arrive at the hotel at night; arrive at the airport an hour before the flight; arrive at a decision; I arrived at the conclusion that he lied to me.
CONSIST (of: состоять из; in: заключаться в): his report consists of six parts; the United States consists of fifty states; the United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; Great Britain consists of England, Scotland, and Wales; water consists of hydrogen and oxygen (water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen); his supper consisted of bread and milk; friendship consists in sharing and help; your task consists in finding a new place for our office; consist mainly (mostly, largely, primarily, entirely, only) of (in) something.
COMPRISE (заключать в себе; составлять): the United Kingdom comprises England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland; her collection of books comprises two thousand volumes; women comprise about 60 percent of students at this university.
INCLUDE (включать в себя; иметь в своём составе): this edition includes all of his poems; his report includes a preface and an index; her collection of books includes several rare books; the package included a brief manual; batteries are not included in the set; please include this information in your letter; the names of new members haven't been included in the list yet; she paid for everything, postage included; twenty people were present, including five children.
CONTAIN (содержать; вмещать; сдерживать, не давать выхода): this manual contains a lot of useful information; the package contained a birthday card and a silver medallion on a silver chain; this box contains twelve bottles; this cake contains a lot of sugar; beer contains alcohol; a gallon contains four quarts; he could hardly contain his anger (indignation, amusement, laughter, eagerness); please try to contain yourself; contain a fire; contain inflation.
CRY (плакать, кричать): I saw her crying; Why are you crying? please don't cry; she cried when she saw it; cry like a baby; cry oneself to sleep; cry one's eyes out; cry bitter tears; cry with grief; cry with anger; cry with pain; cry loudly; cry out.
SHOUT (кричать): don't shout at children; please don't shout; Stop shouting! I heard her shouting; shout loudly; shout angrily; shout with pain; shout for help; shout orders; shout out.
YELL (орать): Don't yell at me! Stop yelling! she is always yelling; yell angrily; yell with pain; yell orders.
DEMAND (требовать как необходимое; настоятельно спрашивать): I demand an apology (an explanation, an aswer); he demanded money from them; she demanded payment of the debt; he demands obedience; this task demands patience (great care, skills, energy); she demanded that he leave immediately; I demand to be shown the whole report; the suspect demands that he be allowed to call his lawyer; "Who told you that?" she demanded; demand angrily (indignantly, furiously, aggressively, irritably, coldly).
CLAIM (требовать как принадлежащее по праву; заявлять): he claimed the throne; she claimed her right to the estate; he claimed payment (compensation, damages); he claimed an exemption for dependents; he tried to claim back some of his expenses; this problem claims attention; she claimed against them / on them; he claims to be the sole heir; he claims to own the house; she claims that she was tricked into selling her house; claim rightfully; claim falsely.
REQUIRE (требовать как необходимое, установленное правилами): do as the law requires; you are required to register; I did everything that was required of me; the law requires us to pay taxes; the teacher required that her students should attend the conference; the officers required absolute obedience from/of their soldiers; she requires medical care; this task requires patience (great care, skills, energy); these flowers require a lot of water; this noun requires the definite article; the house requires painting; as circumstances may require; if required; when required.
NEED (нуждаться в; требоваться): we need bread, butter, and milk; we need to buy some meat; she needs help; I need your help; I really need you; I need a map of Moscow; call me if you need something; I need more time; I need to work harder; I don't need it; you don't need to do it; she needs medical care; these flowers need a lot of water; the water tap needs fixing; the house needs painting; this room needs cleaning; his shirts need ironing; if needed; when needed.
DO (делать): do housework; do the dishes; do the room; do the cooking; do the shopping; do homework; do an exercise; do a sum; do math; do research; do business with someone; do one's work; do one's job; do one's duty; do one's part; I'll do my best; she did her hair; don't do it; she has already done it; do me a favor; do something; do nothing; do anything you want; do a number of things; do the right thing; do good; do justice to someone; do harm; do magic; do wonders; do the trick; do fifty miles an hour; do five years in prison; do right; do wrong; he did well at the exam; well done; How do you do? How are you doing? I'm doing fine; What can I do for you? What does she do? What is she doing? I don't know; I have work to do; I have nothing to do; I have nothing to do with it; easy does it; That does it! that will do.
MAKE (делать, создавать): make breakfast; make dinner; make lunch; make a meal; make soup; make pizza; make a pie; make a sandwich; make coffee; make tea; make a drink; make a dress; make furniture; make cars; make money; make a living; make a fortune; make a telephone call; make an appointment; make a reservation; make plans; make changes; make a request; make a suggestion; make an offer; make a promise; make a decision; make a complaint; make a deal; make a speech; make a will; make a wish; make an attempt; make a discovery; make a mistake; make a difference; make a fuss; make a mess; make progress; make sense; make trouble; make peace; make love; make room for something; make sure; make certain; make friends; make believe; make do; make the best of it; make the most of it; make him do it; it made him rich; it made her angry; make yourself at home; make up your mind; two and two makes four; I can't make it at 8:00; he will make a good teacher; she had it made.
DEFEND (защищать, оборонять): he defended his family; he defended them from the attackers; they defended their town from/against the enemy (from/against attack); they will defend their country; he defended himself with a stick; defend yourself; defend your rights (your beliefs); he tried to defend his point (his decision); he hired a good lawyer to defend him in court; defend a case; defend a suit; the champion defended his title successfully.
PROTECT (защищать, охранять, предохранять от): parents must protect their children from bad influence (from infectious diseases); wear sunglasses to protect your eyes from the sun; this cream will protect your skin from/against sunburn; protect iron from corrosion; protect forests from fire; protect property from intruders; protect from harm (from injury, from danger, from loss, from insult; from attack, from intruders); they protect their own interests.
GUARD (охранять, сторожить; оберегать от): guard the prison (the prisoners); guard the door; guard a camp; guard a secret; guard one's reputation; parents must guard their children from bad influence (from infectious diseases); try to guard against infection (against temptation); check your spelling regularly to guard against typical mistakes; guard one's temper (one's tongue).
SAFEGUARD (охранять, предохранять, гарантировать от): she is trying to safeguard her interests (her rights, her privacy, her health); schools must safeguard the children from harm; this medicine will safeguard you against the return of the illness; new measures to safeguard the industry against/from foreign competition.
SHIELD (защищать, заслонить): she shielded her eyes from the bright light with her hand; he shielded the child with his own body; he lied to the police to shield his younger brother; he has always tried to shield her from harm (from danger, from gossip, from blame); shield from prosecution; shield from invasion; new measures to shield the companies from foreign competition.
FALL (падать): I fell and hurt my elbow; she tripped over a stone and fell; the cup fell and broke; snow is falling; rain is falling; the temperature fell ten degrees; prices fell by 20 percent; leaves fall from the trees in autumn; he fell from the bicycle; he fell on his knees; fall down; fall to the ground; fall to the floor; his voice fell to a whisper; his birthday falls on a Sunday this year; the stress falls on the first syllable; their choice fell on him; suspicion fell on her; the river falls into the sea; fall into place; fall into a trap; fall into a habit; fall in love; fall to pieces; fall on one's feet; fall out of use; fall victim to someone's trick; fall asleep; fall ill; fall flat; fall short.
DROP (падать, ронять, прекращать, капать): the temperature dropped twenty degrees; prices dropped sharply; sales dropped by 50 percent; the number of visitors dropped from 500 to 75; he dropped to his knees; he dropped his voice; Drop dead! I dropped my keys; she dropped her glasses; drop me at the corner; drop me a line; drop a word for me; drop a hint; drop into a habit; let's drop the subject; she dropped old friends; he dropped his studies; she drops her t's at the end of words; she dropped out of school; he dropped from sight; drop from a competition; light rain dropped; water drops from the roof; drop a tear over something.
Note: DRIP (капать): the water tap is dripping; I was dripping wet; he was dripping with blood.
FIND (найти): find an answer; find a solution; find a way to do it; find a mistake; find a dollar in the street; he found his keys; I can't find my glasses; Where can I find it? find a doctor; find a cure for cancer; find oil; find gold; find money for the project; find happiness; find time; find courage; find one's tongue; find by chance; I find it strange; I find it necessary; I found his room empty; she found him sleeping; they found him guilty; he finally found himself; find fault with someone; find out the truth; find out where she is going; I found out that she had left for Paris.
DISCOVER (обнаружить, сделать открытие): discover a new island; discover a new planet; Columbus discovered America; Who discovered electricity? I discovered that I made a mistake; I discovered that several files were missing.
FINISH (закончить): I finish work at six; he finished school in 2004; we were just finishing dinner when the phone rang; finish your meal; I have to finish my report; I haven't finished reading this book; he finished writing a new story; finish early; Who finished first? she finished before they did; he finished his speech by saying, "Thank you, my friends." this course finishes in June; Are you finished with the cooking? she is finished with that impudent young man; they finished off the rest of the cake; he finished up in prison; he will finish up by breaking his neck; the disease almost finished him; the table is finished in brown laquer.
END (закончить): the meeting ended at three o'clock; the war ended in 1945; How does the story end? all is well that ends well; the project ended in failure; the corridor ended in a closed door; the street ended before a small park; he ended up in a hospital; he will end up by hurting himself; he ended his life; let's end this useless argument; he ended his speech with a joke.
COMPLETE (завершить): the construction of the new road hasn't been completed yet; our new house isn't completed yet; our project was completed on schedule; they completed their task and left; he completed a six-month computer course; on that day his little daughter completed her first week of school; by six o'clock he had completed twenty pages of his new story; please complete this form accurately; Can you help me to complete this puzzle?
TERMINATE (положить конец; закончить): terminate a contract; terminate someone's privileges; terminate an agreement; terminate a controversy; his employment contract was abruptly (immediately, automatically) terminated; this railway line terminates near the woods.
FORBID (запрещать): he forbids her to go there; she forbids her daughter to visit night clubs; I forbid you to touch my things; she forbids smoking in this room; smoking is forbidden here; they forbade him entry to their house; my health forbids going there; God forbid!
PROHIBIT (запрещать): the law prohibits the sale of cigarettes to children; she prohibits smoking in this room; smoking is prohibited here; they prohibit him from visiting her; he was prohibited from going there.
BAN (запрещать): ban nuclear tests; ban a book; ban a film; ban a play; ban a newspaper; ban a demonstration; ban a protest meeting; ban the import of foreign cars.
FULFILL (выполнить полностью; исполнить; осуществить): fulfill a promise; he finally fulfilled his promise to his parents; fulfill a task (an order); he failed (was unable; couldn't; tried; was able; managed) to fulfill the required task; fulfill one's duties (one's obligations); we have to fulfill this work by the end of the month; fulfill a need (demand, requirement, purpose); fulfill a function; his hopes (desires, dreams) have been fulfilled; he won't be able to fulfill himself in this field; he hasn't fulfilled his potential yet.
REALIZE (осознавать; осуществить; реализовать): he realized that he was wrong; he realized his mistake only later; I fully realize the difficulties ahead; I didn't realize how difficult it could become; I didn't realize how late it was; realize one's plans (intentions, ideas, hopes, ambitions); he finally realized his intention of becoming an actor; she realized her plan to start her own business; the house realized a profit; these goods realized about ten thousand dollars; those goods were difficult to realize.
ACCOMPLISH (выполнить, довести до конца): accomplish a mission; accomplish a difficult task; she accomplished what she had hoped for; How did you accomplish that? accomplish successfully; accomplish easily.
ACHIEVE (достичь, добиться): he achieved his purpose (his aim, his goal); our purpose (aim, goal, plan) was achieved; his words achieved their aim; achieve success; achieve unity; achieve lasting peace; achieve victory; achieve good results; he failed to achieve his objectives; it is difficult (impossible, easy) to achieve what you want.
REACH (достичь места, состояния; дотянуться до): they reached their destination; we reached Boston late at night; the bookcase reaches the ceiling; she has reached the age of 70; their profits are expected to reach three million dollars next year; they were unable to reach a conclusion (a decision, a verdict); they failed to reach an agreement (an understanding); he reached some success in his studies; his words reached their aim; I called several times but couldn't reach him; she reached for the telephone (for her bag, for her key); he reached into his pocket for his wallet; he is so tall that he can reach the top shelf easily; he reached out his hand in greeting; he reached out and touched the wall.
GO (идти, ехать): go home; go to work; go to school; go to Spain; go to prison; go to the kitchen; go to the park; go for a walk; go for a ride; go for a drive; go by bus; go by plane; go by train; go on foot; Does this bus go to the center? go down this street; go this way; go upstairs; go abroad; she is gone; I have to go now; this old sofa will have to go; go broke; go Dutch; go mad; go crazy; go wrong; go easy on something; go too far; go for it; go shopping; go fishing; I'm going to see Anna; he is going to leave next week; How is your new job going? How did the meeting go? time goes quickly; if all goes well; let her go; let yourself go; coffee and pizza to go.
WALK (идти пешком, гулять): walk in the park; walk after supper; walk down this street; walk this way; walk two blocks; walk along the road; walk fast; walk slowly; her baby is learning to walk; she usually walks to work; she walked the baby around the room; he walked me to the bus stop; walk the dog; walk the streets; walk the floor; walk on air.
HAVE (иметь): have a car; have a nice house; she has a good job; he doesn't have a telephone; they don't have much money; I have a younger brother; he has a lot of friends; she has blue eyes; he has dark hair; he has the right to do it; have breakfast; have lunch; have dinner, have a sandwich; have a cup of tea; have a drink; have a baby; have a problem; have a question; have an opportunity; have an idea; have a suspicion; have doubts; have a good time; have fun; have a look; have a talk; have a walk; have a seat; have a bath; have a cold; have a headache; have a heart attack; have a fight; have an accident; have patience; have influence; I don't have enough courage to do it; he has a lot of good qualities; have pity on him; he doesn't have time; you have an hour for this task; I have to go; we have to help him; I don't have to work today; have him do it; have her call me; I will not have it! I've had it!
OWN (владеть, признавать своим): she owns a car; he owns a nice house; he owns land; Do you own property? she doesn't own the house in which she lives; they own their own home; he owns a gun legally; she owns the estate jointly with her brother; the company is partly owned by his uncle; the building is privately owned; he owned his child in court; he owned his faults; he owned to being wrong.
POSSESS (владеть, обладать): possess property; possess wealth; possess a house; possess courage; possess patience; possess good qualities; possess oneself; he was possessed by anger; he is possessed by ambition; she is possessed by the desire to become rich; she is possessed by envy; he is possessed by demons; What possessed her to do it?
Note: HAVE and HAVE GOT (have, have got) are described in Russian in the commentary to the song Gary Moore - Still Got the Blues in the section Hobby.
HIDE (прятать, скрывать): they hid the treasure in the woods; he hid the money under the mattress (under a floorboard); she hid her face in her hands; he couldn't hide his feelings (his disappointment, his intentions); the sun was hidden by the clouds; What are you hiding from me? I have nothing to hide; Where is he hiding? the boy hid in the closet; hide behind the door; you'd better hide until they leave.
CONCEAL (прятать, скрывать, утаивать): he concealed the truth; he concealed his motives; he concealed his name; he tried to conceal his feelings (his fear, his intentions, his ignorance); he concealed the gun in his sleeve; they concealed the weapons (the criminals, the fugitives) in their farmhouse.
LAY (положить, класть): lay – laid – laid – laying; lay the book on the desk; lay the child on the bed; lay the carpet on the floor; lay the table for dinner; lay the foundation; lay the cable; lay the pipeline; lay bricks; lay eggs; lay a tax on imported goods; lay the blame on someone; lay siege to a city; lay down one's life; lay someone to rest; lay oneself open; the story is laid in a small village; many workers were laid off.
PUT (положить, поставить): put your bag on the floor; put your coat on the bed; put the cups on the table; put the books on the shelf; put the keys into the bag; put your money in the bank; put a child to bed; put a child into nursery school; put a criminal into prison; put everything in order; put an end to something; put a tax on imported goods; put the blame on someone; put yourself in my place; put two and two together; I don't know how to put it; to put it mildly.
Note: LIE (лежать): lie – lay – lain – lying; lie on the bed; lie on the floor; the cat is lying on the sofa; lie awake; lie still; lie sick; lie idle; lie in ambush; lie in wait; the village lies to the north of the city; the land that lies in front of you; the town lay in ruins; the trouble lies in poor nutrition; the remedy lies in good education; the decision lies with him.
LEARN (изучать, познавать, узнать): learn English; she learned French from her parents; learn the poem by heart; he learned his lesson; learn by example; learn by experience; learn from mistakes; learn from watching others; learn to speak; learn to read; her baby is learning to walk; my son is learning to swim; she is learning to drive; she is learning to be patient; she learns quickly; learn the truth; learn the sad news; she learned that he left for London; I was surprised to learn that he was 70 years old.
STUDY (изучать, заниматься): study law; study mathematics; study English; study languages; study medicine; study a problem; study a case; study a book; study the situation; study the map of Manhattan; study people's faces; she is studying to become a doctor; study for an examination; I have to study; he studies hard; she studied the material thoroughly.
LEND (дать взаймы): banks lend money; libraries lend books; Can you lend me fifty dollars till Sunday? he lent a hundred dollars to his roommate; lend a dictionary; lend a bicycle; Could you lend me a hand with cleaning?
LOAN (дать взаймы): banks loan money at interest; libraries loan books; he loaned a hundred dollars to his roommate.
Note: Antonym – BORROW (взять взаймы): borrow money; borrow a hundred dollars till Monday; she borrowed money from a bank; borrow a dictionary; borrow a bicycle; I borrowed his CD player; Can I borrow your pen?
LOOK FOR (искать): look for a job; look for a new apartment; look for a place to live; look for a nice hotel to stay; look for a book; look for an answer; look for advice; look for help; she is looking for her keys; he is looking for a way to solve this problem; I'm looking for Mr. Smith; I'm looking for black leather shoes in size 8; I'm looking for Oak Street; they are looking for excitement; they are looking for trouble; What are you looking for? What qualities are you looking for in your friends?
SEARCH (искать, обыскать): search for truth; search for beauty; search for peace of mind; search for gold; search for a book; search for an answer; he searched his mind for an explanation, but couldn't find any; he searched his memory but couldn't remember her name; he searched her face for a clue; she searched her apartment for the lost ring; the police searched the house; the police searched the suspects for hidden weapons; Search me!
SEEK (formal: искать, пытаться найти): seek the truth; seek help; seek advice; seek someone's approval; seek employment; seek work; seek fame; seek wealth; seek one's fortune; seek protection; seek a way to solve the problem; seek shelter; seek a place for rest; seek for gold; seek for peace of mind; seek and ye shall find; be sought after; experienced managers are much sought after by employers.
MEAN (значить, иметь в виду; намереваться; предназначать): What does this word mean? I don't know what it means; What does it mean? What do you mean? What do you mean by saying that we don't have adequate equipment? What do you mean by "adequate"? they don't know what it means to be hungry (to be poor, to be alone); his words meant nothing to me; your advice (recommendation, praise, help, friendship) means a lot to me; money means everything to him; I never say what I don't mean; I didn't mean it; I mean it; I really mean it; What do you mean to do? I mean to talk to him about it; I meant to ask you; I didn't mean to offend you; it was meant as a compliment (as a joke); she meant no harm; he means well; she means you no good; her remark was meant for you; they were meant for each other.
IMPLY (подразумевать): her answer implies refusal (consent, acceptance, criticism); you seem to imply that I should know the answer; he implied (to them) that he knew more than he had told them; his words imply that he knows about this problem; What does this statement imply? It usually (generally, normally) implies that you can get your money back. It does not necessarily imply that you can get your money back without good reason.
DENOTE (обозначать, значить): A comma denotes a very short pause in a sentence. Percentage is denoted by the symbol %. The detective placed tiny flags on the map to denote the location of the suspects. Tears usually denote pain or grief.
SIGNIFY (означать, показывать): A slash often signifies alternatives, for example, and/or. Ellipsis points signify omission. His work during that period signified a new stage in his career. They signified their approval by clapping their hands.
Note: INTEND (намереваться; предназначать) is a more formal synonym of MEAN in these meanings. (INTEND – более официальный синоним для MEAN в этих значениях.) Examples: What do you intend to do? I intend to talk to him about it. She intends to tell them everything. He intends to leave next week. No offense was intended. Her remark was intended for you. This book is intended as a gift for my daughter. The fund is intended for educational purposes.
OFFER (предлагать): offer help; offer to help; he offered her a drink; they offered him a good job; he offered to drive me to the store; offer money; offer $100 for the carpet; offer goods at a reduced price; the school offers various night courses; hotels offer various services; offer an apology; offer advice; offer an opinion; offer a suggestion; offer a solution to a problem; offer a plan; he was offered a good job.
SUGGEST (предлагать): suggest an idea; suggest a plan; suggest a solution to a problem; suggest a candidate for a job; suggest him as the committee chairman; he suggested staying at the Green Hotel; he suggested that we should wait a little longer; she suggested that the meeting be postponed; evidence suggests that she was at the scene of the crime; Do you suggest that she is lying? his name doesn't suggest anything to me.
PROPOSE (предлагать): propose a plan; propose a toast to someone's health; I propose Mr. Doyle for chairman; she proposed that the meeting be postponed; propose marriage; he proposed to her.
RAISE (поднять): raise your hands; raise your head; raise a hat to someone; raise a glass to someone; raise him from his knees; the noise raised him from his bed; raise a building; raise a monument; raise a tower; raise funds; they raised 500 dollars for the flood victims; raise a question; raise an issue; raise objections; raise a protest; raise prices; raise salaries; raise children; raise a family; raise cattle; raise corn; raise one's voice; raise one's hopes; raise one's spirits; raise suspicion; raise memories; raise hell; raise the dead; raise someone from the dead.
LIFT (поднять): she lifted her hand; she lifted the child from the floor; he lifted the bag and put it on the table; this box is too heavy to lift; lift the ban on a book; he managed to lift himself from poverty; she didn't even lift a finger to help me; the plane lifted off.
Note: RISE (подняться): rise from the floor; she rose from a chair; he rose from his knees; a bird rose in the air; the plane rose above the clouds; she rose early today; rise high; the sun rises in the East; the tower rises to the height of 200 meters; the river rose five feet in three hours; prices are rising again; his temperature is rising; she felt her temper rising; he rose from the dead.
REFUSE (отказаться): he refused the nomination; he refused my offer of help; she refused my request; she refused permission; she refused them permission to enter; she refused to see him; they refused to discuss the question; he refused to listen (to answer, to go, to co-operate, to help, to obey); I asked him to come, but he refused; you have the right to refuse; they made me an offer I couldn't refuse; I was unable to refuse; she won't refuse him; he refused her nothing; refuse politely (repeatedly, pointedly, categorically, resolutely, flatly, outright, stubbornly).
REJECT (отвергать): he rejected my advice; he rejected their offer of help; he completely rejects this idea; his sons rejected him; she rejected three suitors; they firmly (categorically, flatly, indignantly, unanimously, immediately, consistently) rejected such suggestions; his proposal was rejected as too costly; his first novel was rejected by several publishing companies; damaged goods were rejected by consumers.
DECLINE (polite: отклонить): she declined his invitation; he declined their offer of help; she politely declined to answer his questions; he absolutely declined to discuss his business activity with his parents; they invited her to lunch, but she declined.
Note: Other meanings of DECLINE (идти под уклон, на убыль): the road declines noticeably; his health declined considerably; profits declined by 25%; the market for these products is declining.
SAY (сказать): He said, "I am busy." What did he say? he said that he was busy; say it loudly; say these words after me; say something; say anything; he said nothing; he didn't say a word; say hello; say good-bye; say yes; say no; say thank you; What can I say? I'm afraid I couldn't say; it is often said that life is unfair.
TELL (рассказать): tell me your name; tell me about your family; What did he tell you? he told me that he was busy; tell a story; tell a secret; tell a lie; tell the truth; tell the time; tell the news; tell the facts; Could you tell me where the bank is? tell him to do it; tell her to stop.
SPEAK (говорить): I spoke with him yesterday; May I speak to Ann Jones, please? the lecturer spoke for an hour; he will speak at the meeting; Do you speak English? speak fast; speak slowly; speak loudly; speak in a low voice; speak openly; speak for yourself; speak up; so to speak.
TALK (разговаривать): she is talking with her friends; I'll talk to her about it; Are you talking to me? people are already talking; What are you talking about? talk shop; talk politics; stop talking; she will talk you to death; talk it over with your family.
STOP (остановить, перестать, прекратить): stop talking; stop working; stop playing; stop joking; stop complaining; stop crying; stop the car; stop the bus; stop work; stop the game; stop the war; stop fire; stop payment; stop delivery; stop it; I can't stop it; Stop thief! stop him; stop him from doing it; What's stopping you? Stop bothering me! she can't stop; stop immediately; stop suddenly; stop abruptly; stop short; stop completely; the rain stopped; he stopped at the corner; stop at the traffic light; Does this bus stop at the bank? he stopped at a small hotel for the night; he will stop at nothing; he stopped to read a note in the window; he stopped to light his cigarette; stop a leak; stop a hole; stop a bottle with a cork.
QUIT (прекратить, бросить): he decided to quit his job; she keeps threatening to quit; Why did he quit school? we quit work at seven o'clock; quit smoking; quit complaining; quit the city for the village in the woods.
CEASE (прекратить, прекращаться): Cease fire! the bank ceased payment; he ceased his efforts; the rain ceased falling; she ceased working five years ago; such films ceased to interest me; strange superstitions haven't ceased to exist; the singing ceased abruptly; the war finally ceased.
THROW (бросать): throw a ball; throw a stone at someone; throw a piece of paper into the wastebasket; throw a rope to someone; throw a man into prison; throw a glance at something; she threw me a kiss; throw a shadow on something; throw light on something; throw doubt on something; throw one's voice; throw a party; throw a fit; she threw herself into his arms; he threw himself into making films; he threw all his energy into the project; throw out the garbage; the horse threw its rider.
CAST (бросать; в осн. в идиом. выражениях): cast stones; cast a net; cast a fishing line; cast a vote; cast a glance at something; cast a shadow on something; cast light on something; cast doubts; cast pearls before swine; cast a spell on someone; cast lots; cast actors; he was cast for the part of the villain; snakes cast the skin; snakes shed the skin; birds cast feathers; birds shed feathers.
TOSS (бросать, подбросить): toss a piece of paper into the wastebasket; toss a ball; toss a bone to the dog; toss a coin; toss a pancake; she tossed the salad lightly; she made tossed salad; she tossed and turned all night.
WAIT (ждать): wait for a bus; wait for a telephone call; wait for me; don't wait for me; I'm waiting for an answer; wait for your turn; wait for an hour; wait a minute; wait till eight o'clock; wait patiently; wait here; wait in the hall; How long have you been waiting? wait and see; it can wait; it can't wait any longer; this work will have to wait until next week; I can't wait; I can't wait to see you; keep someone waiting; wait tables; wait on someone.
EXPECT (ожидать): expect guests for dinner; expect a present; she expected an answer, but he remained silent; I didn't expect it; I hope you don't expect me to do it; we expect good work from you; you are expected to know it; I expect him to arrive in an hour; I expect that he will come to the meeting; they expect their second child in June; she is expecting.
ANTICIPATE (ожидать, предвидеть): anticipate pleasure; anticipate success; anticipate a favorable decision; anticipate trouble; anticipate refusal; anticipate disaster; anticipate someone's wishes; anticipate a blow.
WANT (хотеть): I want to see you; she wants to sleep; I don't want it; I want something to read; I want something to eat; I want a sandwich; I want a pound of Swiss cheese, please; What does he want? What do you want to do? What do you want from me? I want the truth; he wants me to write a report; the manager wants you in his office; he is wanted by the police; the house wants painting; this shirt wants washing; you want the number 15 bus (not the 16); she will never want for anything.
WOULD LIKE (хотел бы): I would like to see you; I would like to say a few words about this project; I'd like to say something to you; I'd like to talk to Maria, please; I would like to visit New York next year; I'd like a round-trip ticket to Boston, please; I'd like a cheese sandwich and a cup of coffee, please; I'd like a pound of butter, please; What would you like? What would you like to do? What would you like to eat? the manager would like to talk to you.
WISH (желать): I wish you luck; I wish you the best; I wish she were here now; I wish he would come back; I wish I could help him; wish on a falling star; wish on a penny.
WATCH (наблюдать, смотреть; караулить): watch a film; watch a play; watch TV; watch television; watch a football game; watch the birds in the garden; I watched him clean the yard; she watched the children playing in the sand; watch me; watch the baby; the feeling of being watched; I have to watch my diet; watch his progress; watch the development of the situation; watch with interest; watch attentively; watch at the door; watch for a signal; watch for an opportunity; watch with a sick person; watch your step; watch your language; Watch it! Watch out!
OBSERVE (наблюдать, соблюдать; заметить): observe weather phenomena; observe the eclipse of the sun; observe the behavior of ants; observe the patient's reaction to medicines; observe the experiment; observe the operation; she feels that she is being observed; observe silence; observe discipline; observe the laws; observe the rules; observe traditions; observe a holiday; he observed coldly that nobody asked her to do it.
WEAR (носить, быть одетым в): wear a coat; wear warm clothes; wears jeans; she is wearing a blue dress today; he is wearing a suit; wear a hat; wear leather shoes; wear glasses; wear jewels; wear a wig; wear a mask; wear a disguise; I have nothing to wear; What size clothes do you wear? I wear clothes in size 50; wear one's clothes into rags; wear one's shoes into holes; wear a man to a shadow; this fabric will wear for years; this fabric won't wear; this color will wear well; his coat is worn out; she is worn by anxiety; wear a smile; wear an air of happiness; wear one's head high; wear one's hair short; my patience is wearing thin; her patience is worn out.
DRESS (одевать): dress warmly; she dressed her little daughter in a nice dress; she is dressed in black; dress for dinner; What are you dressed up for? dress a store window with garlands; the surgeon dressed the wound.
PUT ON (надевать): put on a dress; put on a coat; put on a sweater; put on your glasses; put on weight; put on airs; he is putting you on.
Note: Examples illustrating the use of these verbs in idiomatic expressions and as phrasal verbs are provided in the section Idioms.
Примечание: Примеры, иллюстрирующие употребление этих глаголов в идиоматических выражениях и в качестве фразовых глаголов, даны в разделе Idioms.